The Thorium Lead Dating Method - Creationism Online
Thorium - Cancer-Causing Substances - National Cancer ...
Uranium–thorium dating method and Palaeolithic rock art ...
Uranium-thorium-lead dating Britannica
thorium–lead dating - oi
Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal that is found in soil, rock, and water. It is formed by the radioactive decay of uranium. Minerals such as monazite, thorite, and thorianite are rich in thorium and may be mined for the metal. Uranium-Thorium dating is a way of determining the age of a rock by the amount of radioactive Thorium it contains. This method can be used to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials, such ... 3.8. Uranium Thorium dating While radiocarbon dating is limited to about <50 000 y and the 40K-40Ar dating method is limited to volcanic material and also used to be limited to samples of more than 100 000 y of age, the Uranium Thorium method is an alternative approach to extend the radiocarbon dating range to 1 000 000 y in time. uranium thorium Uranium–thorium dating has proved its usefulness for the reconstruction of palaeoclimate, the assessment of sea level changes and 14 C calibration. In the case of samples taken along the growth axis of large stalagmites, far removed from the surface, chemical exchanges are probably absent and closed-system behaviour is expected. A radiometric dating method based on the radioactive decay of 232 Th, to yield 208 Pb + 6He 4, with a half-life (see decay constant) of 13 900 million years.The minerals used include sphene, zircon, monazite, apatite, and other rare U/Th minerals. Uranium-Thorium dating is based on the detection by mass spectrometry of both the parent (234 U) and daughter (230 Th) products of decay, through the emission of an alpha particle.The decay of Uranium 234 to Thorium 230 is part of the much longer decay series begining in 238 U and ending in 206 Pb. For Uranium-Thorium dating, the initial ratio of 230 Th/ 234 U at the time of sample formation ... Uranium-thorium-lead dating, method of establishing the time of origin of a rock by means of the amount of common lead it contains; common lead is any lead from a rock or mineral that contains a large amount of lead and a small amount of the radioactive progenitors of lead—i.e., the uranium The Thorium Lead Dating Method . By Paul Nethercott. September 2012 . How reliable is radiometric dating? We are repeatedly told that it proves the Earth to be billions of years old. If radiometric dating is reliable then it should not contradict the evolutionary model. Uranium-Thorium clockwork Uranium-Thorium dating is an absolute dating technique which uses the properties of the radio-active half-life of the two alpha emitters 238U and 230Th. The half-life of 238U is T 1/2=4,470,000,000 y. The half-life of 230Th is comparably short, only T 1/2=75,380 y. When the amounts of uranium Helium dating, method of age determination that depends on the production of helium during the decay of the radioactive isotopes uranium-235, uranium-238, and thorium-232. Because of this decay, the helium content of any mineral or rock capable of retaining helium will increase during the lifetime
Love Toboggan. A toboggan is some kind of sled, apparently, so… they’re going sledding? While it’s autumn? Sure, why not…
Does Sara usually wear a full-body costume like that? Also, did I ever mention before that something about her face is… different, compared to the facial styles of Milo, Melissa and Zack? I don’t know.
Sara is apparently very bad at keeping secrets. Good to know. And she’s going on a date with Neal from the comic shop, which is also good to know, because… reasons.
Apparently the rest of Murphy’s (and Zack and Melissa, of course) are indeed going up to the hills to go sledding, judging from those outfits.
Of course Milo and his father would hate concrete. And of course Milo made a list of all the things that can go wrong with snow. Not all of them equally disastrous.
Giant snowman, of course.
Well, Neal seems decent at first sight.
Ah, this is just Sara day-dreaming about what could go wrong. I was about to say that although Sara’s story was kind of rambly, that was no reason for Neal to walk out on her right away. She really is a lot like Candace.
‘It’s not a to-do-list’. Zack, I think you might as well make it one to get it over with.
A spare ski really is a good idea. As is Zack’s thought of reading that list ahead of time, but as Milo says, ‘What fun would that be?’
‘What are they running from?’ (Next scene) ‘Get out of the way, you stupid wolf!’
Sara Murphy is Candace Flynn.
‘Large sheet of metal, on a cold incline, covered in ice. And we think it’s a good idea to slide down.’ Where would we be without Zack’s snarkiness?
Thanks for the five-second-foreshadowing, two random guys.
Well, they got down the incline all right. That counts for a lot, right?
The smokestack exploding because of Martin Murphy throwing all those free samples in the fire, while his son and his friends were on it, is so absolutely random.
I suppose that land speed record is about to get shattered.
Okay, that mood whiplash just made this very randomly sad. This is more like the jokes they’d pull on Gravity Falls than on Phineas and Ferb. Remember Big Henry, anyone?
Sara Murphy is Candace Flynn, but worse. At least her mental images never fought swordfights.
There’s a special quail brake on the train. That’s… that’s nifty.
‘Those aren’t quails, they’re partridges! Get outta here!’
I hadn’t noticed before that the diner downtown was called ‘Diner Downtown’. And in retrospect it was inevitable that Milo, Zack and Melissa would end up crashing Sara’s date not-date.
…or not. Jay for Milo doing his best not to crash his sister’s date! And trying to avert a crash, I suppose. Although given that Sara and Neal already left…
‘Please sir, just don’t hurt the commemorative plaque!’
Well, apparently Neal is a good match for Sara, then.
And there are Milo and their friends to crash the date anyway. Not particularly surprising at this point.
Neal/Sara is pretty cute. Milo’s song helps.
Poor Mrs. Murphy. And this was a sweet episode. I think I liked this one better than the previous (not that that one was bad, it was pretty good). Neal really fits with Sara, if you get what I mean. In a way, say, Jeremy Johnson didn’t quite fit with Candace. He could be an interesting character if done right (although they probably shouldn’t make him too similar to Sara either, because that just gets boring).
Episode 33: The Island Of Lost Dakotas
Well, I suppose this episode will take on an island, and Dakota will get lost. It might cause Cavendish to reflect on their awkward friendship? Maybe they’ll even have an argument and that’s why he gets lost? I don’t know.
There are actually plenty of people and things in the intro that I never really noticed before, despite having watched this intro over thirty times now. Heck, Elliot is there, Milo’s parents, Sara (very distant in the background and you have to pause the episode, but I noticed her), Mrs. Murawski… I wonder whether there are any significant characters who aren’t in the intro.
Ah, so that’s what a corn dog is. I’ve been low-key wondering that for years without bothering to look it up.
So Cavendish regularly dies and Dakota goes back to prevent his deaths? That’s… that’s dark. I wonder whether that ever happens the other way around. I suppose Dakota would have known about it, since Cavendish isn’t the type who would keep that quiet.
Thanks for the flashback, guys, but I did remember that Hamisaur thing.
‘It’s a long story.’ ‘How long?’ ‘About eleven minutes.’ I am not surprised. Why am I not surprised.
You know, I wonder whether when Milo is nervous about something (like laced shoes) the others might not be better off taking his advice. But apparently Zack’s hamisaur obsession is just too great. The blame is on you if this goes wrong, Underwood.
I would argue that the other Dakota sticking around is not how time travel works (nor is talking about it to random old ladies on a bus) but this is Milo Murphy’s Law, and it shares a universe (and thus time travel rules) with Phineas and Ferb. Neither of whom have ever cared much about connecting the two subjects of ‘time travel’ and ‘common sense’.
…seriously, Cavendish? Seriously? At least in that lava case he should know Dakota saved his life. Like with the space scenario. I mean, the guy has to have more common sense than that, right?
(Admittedly, many of them are just plain bad luck.)
Interesting that Dakota doesn’t answer whether he cares about Cavendish, just ‘he’s Cavendish’. I’m sure he does care, though.
With that ship attendant, I’m pretty sure that’s Irving’s voice. Well, Jack McBrayer.
Actually it’s the captain, and by now I know it’s him. You know, I wonder why it’s often been the slightly more peripheral actors from PnF that have shown up (aside from Povenmire himself, of course, and apparently Alyson Stoner at some point… and Vincent Martella unrecognizably voicing Bradley. Okay, that just leaves Thomas Brodie-Sangster and Ashley Tisdale, kind of defeating my point. But it would be nice if they recognizably showed up sometimes, that’s all what I’m saying.)
Little Sara and Milo are adorable. I think I’ve said this before, but I wonder how many years apart they are.
No Zack, that does indeed not make any sense. None of this makes sense. You’re thirty-three episodes in, how have you not noticed that before?
Okay, that first Dakota really could have picked a better spot to hide away until death than such an impenetrable place.
I would not be surprised if all these tribesmen are just Dakota himself, dressed up to play a prank on the newcomer. Or they’re part of a real tribe that really can’t stand Dakota’s.
The masks look fake enough that I’m tempted to put my bets on the first scenario.
Yup. And those are a lot more Dakotas than I expected.
Let us just reflex about how this is an episode in which one half is about a guy being duplicated endlessly through time travel anomalies and then ending up on an island with all his counterparts, while the other is about teens getting tied to a truck carrying a giant dinosaur made out of ham, with shoelaces, and with a lot more being attached on the way. What even is this show. Phineas and Ferb was sane in comparison, and that’s saying a lot.
I, for one, do remember the runaway antique fire truck.
So, this is the mayor of Milo’s home town – who’s entirely used to his antics. I still don’t think we know what the town is actually called.
Using the shoelaces to do that was pretty impressive, Milo.
‘Did you know those plastic things on the ends of shoelaces are called ‘aglets’?’ Because it wouldn’t be a MML episode without making a Phineas and Ferb reference at a random moment.
Of course Milo orders his shoes from the Dakota’s. That… that makes sense.
Cannibal Dakota, Really Smelly Dakota, and Birthday Suit Dakota. For some reason this made me laugh.
I do wonder what Cavendish would think about this. And yeah, what did he do to deserve all that effort? Makes me less surprised that some people apparently ship them.
Episode 34: Fungus Among Us
Fungus Among Us? That refers to plants again.
And this is an unusual episode. Long, and it starts with a Milo-narrated recap.
Ah, the story of the 1965 adventure. And it’s quite unusual that Milo apparently knows he is in a TV show (not that breaking the fourth wall ever stopped Povenmire and Marsh before).
Well, that was a very convenient landing.
Thank you for your head exploding gesture, Melissa. I think that was long overdue by this point, but it’s good to see someone realizing how convoluted this is.
Also, ‘beware the intern’… wasn’t there something about an intern that they mentioned when they went to the creator of Dr. Zone to get that letter from Milo in the Pistachion-themed long episode?
Yeah, Milo is a pretty bad actor.
Nearly naked Dakota. Not something I particularly wanted to see, thank you very much.
Yes Diogee, this is one adventure on which you should actually stay home.
Actually, Zack, it can’t end badly because it already ended well! I think.
So Dr. Zone Files started as a show about a zoning commissioner. Wow. Just wow.
Yeah, that intern is weird. Although since Dakota and Cavendish warned us to beware of him, I wonder whether we just all misunderstood what they were saying. That’s how subverted humor generally works, after all.
Ah, that’s how Time Ape came about.
You know, I hadn’t realized that Milo was quite this much of a fan of Dr. Zone Files – not to the extent that Sara is, at least.
And Milo really shouldn’t be so star struck anymore after those two hours, considering that he just became the one who came up with all these awesome things about his favorite TV show.
I must agree with Melissa. Zack’s old band members coming back to kidnap them in an episode centered on Milo’s journey to the 1960s is indeed about a 78 on a weird scale of one to ten.
Ah, so the intern is involved with a pistachio plant? (Well, not involved with in the vernacular sense.) That’s intriguing. The plot thickens.
‘I thought we were doing good cop, bad cop.’ ‘And who were you, Dangerously Unstable Cop?’ The moment when Cavendish and Dakota both have more common sense than you is a moment you should be wary of, Milo.
Guy with a purple shovel is nice.
Well, apparently there really were good reasons to be wary of that intern. Very, very wary.
That’s where the present-hand comes from. A pistachio trying to cover up his appendage. That makes MML-style sense.
Who was Jody again? Also, more pistachios kidnapping people. I wonder whether Zack’s band now consists of undercover pistachios too. Somehow.
So Mr. Draco was a hidden pistachio? Well, I guess not all along… right?
After all, that would mean Amanda was a hidden pistachio all along, and she’s got too much of a personality of her own for that, not to mention that it would be weird for them to shut down Milo’s crush plotline at a moment when Milo isn’t even there.
Wait, is Diogee actually going home? This is really a bizarre episode in which everything goes wrong, then.
So… how many people in 1965 are hidden pistachios?
That was a pretty elaborate scheme. Which our heroes just ran out on. Yeah, nice job breaking it, villain.
Well, at least the Dr. Zone creator has weirdness to spare here. And if he’s going to use this, shouldn’t Milo know about an episode containing giant sentient plants?
I like how if we hadn’t seen the start of the episode, this side of that phone conversation would still sound natural.
Writing down ‘AAAA’ is pretty cool.
The car is even more of a wreck than it was before, but at least they are outside of the time stream.
Uh oh. I wouldn’t be running towards Zack and Melissa so fast if I were you Milo, because they don’t look natural. You know, those 1965 pistachios did a much better job blending in.
Well, at least Milo caught on that they’re plants.
Which doesn’t explain their attitude, or their unnatural smiles.
At least Sara is still all right. And ‘I thought my dog peed you out of existence’ is a very rare sentence indeed.
Well, it’s not like these plants could make Lard World any worse.
Dakota’s disguise plan was pretty good, but of course then he himself just had to ruin it. At least he’s a fast talker.
Cavendish and Dakota are right. Stopping this before it starts is the way to go.
‘So what did I say about Milo and a time machine?’ Melissa hands Zack a dollar bill.
‘Wait, wait. Diogee, do not go home. It’s not safe. Stay with us.’ That makes this both serious and adorable.
…did Dakota just eat tiny sentient pistachio plants?
I wondered for a moment whether Professor Time was actually Milo, but he would have recognized the home address in that case. I wonder whether he’s someone they know nevertheless?
‘Is that what you call being brilliant?’ ‘Hey, it works in the movies.’
Milo does sound like an agent of Lard World sometimes.
Giant mutated pistachio. Sure, why not.
Milo Murphy’s Guide to How to Provoke Pistachio Monsters. Clever plan, nonetheless. I see where this is going.
Yep. And that worked out as well as it possibly could have.
Well, this is all setting up for a cliffhanger of some proportions.
Looks like professor Time’s house was already infiltrated by the pistachios.
…well. I was not expecting to see Heinz Doofenshmirtz there. I mean, I had heard of the PnF crossover of course, and even that there was going to be a quick clip of Doof in MML, but I did not see it coming there.
Wow. Mind blown. Also, is it just me or does Doof looks slightly different in MML-style than in PnF style?
There is so much to analyze here. So Doof lives here, in the same town as the Murphys and everything else… it all depends, I suppose, on how long it’s been in-universe since Phineas and Ferb ended. Wow. This is awesome. I can’t imagine what it was like for those who didn’t know it was coming at all.
And since there’s still one episode left until I’m up to date, I’m guessing that that one takes place in a different time? Like a flashback? I mean, right now I can’t see the crossover as being anything other than the heroes from PnF teaming up with the heroes from MML to fight the new army of pistachios (there is something especially ridiculous about Phineas, Ferb, Candace, Heinz and Perry etc. fighting pistachios, as if bringing in characters from a slightly less zany franchise shows how wacky this premise is. Emphasis, of course, on ‘slightly’). Whom I was fully expecting to be a one-off comeback villain until I realized about two minutes before the ending that there was no way this would end here. Wow. I’m not even sure how to judge the specific episode – I suppose it was good. It’s all been pretty good, lately. And this show is so different from Phineas and Ferb in that it has a continuity in which major things shift. I imagine that that was something Povenmire and Marsh really needed to get used to at first.
Episode 35: Halloween Scream-A-Torium
For some reason it took me forever to get to this, but at least after this I’m fully up to date, at least for a month or two.
A Halloween special. I really should have watched this two weeks earlier… oh well. I mean, I knew that after how the last episode ended, it was going to have to be out of the continuity line somehow. I would guess that there are three scary short stories? Let’s see.
Vampiric Milo looks really strange. And as always, half the fun of Halloween episodes with shows like this is how all the tropes from horror stories get lampshaded and parodied.
Good that our narrator helps us stay focused. And of course Sara dressed up as Dr. Zone. I mean, it’s Sara.
Melissa is right. No more bets. And I suppose from that point of view, they might as well enter an unsafe truck, because every truck that Milo enters is unsafe by default, right?
Yeah, Zack is remarkably uncostumed.
“Aren’t we a little too old” – wrong show to ask age-related questions, Zack.
Like I said before, Sara is… well, Sara.
Okay, that would have at least startled me. Zack’s composure is most impressive.
Zack has a Halloween-related traumatizing backstory? Why not.
Yeah, it’s always important to keep zombies and vampires separate. Also, who wants to bet that everything in here is going to fail to frighten Zack, but Murphy’s Law will? Yeah, Melissa is right. No more bets.
‘I’ve heard this dream before, she says no.’ ‘Well, she might have said yes this time!’ ‘In your dreams.’ ‘Well, yes, obviously, but now we will never know!’ This is both funny and very relatable. Poor Cavendish.
The last Halloween? One would think that’s a mystery worth solving more than the pistachios. Maybe that should have been their mission from the start. Will Halloween’s demise be Murphy-related?
Poor Brick and Savannah. Still, it’s impressed that they somehow got dressed in costume under the snow.
Those time grenades are so going to backfire on everyone.
The ghastly chamber of ghastliness? Really?
‘It’s so terrifying I can hardly believe we’re just sitting in Milo’s driveway.’ Yeah… you should have known that you were never going to stay there for long. Now I wonder whether this’ll be one of those episodes in which all sorts of freakish things happen to the truck but no one inside is the wiser, Zack isn’t scared, and the truck somehow ends up back home with Zack not scared at all, and then maybe he ends up scared by something minor? That’s an honest guess, no foreknowledge involved at this point. Just genre savviness.
Sara is afraid of a lot, it seems.
That contrast between the music around the truck and Elliot’s bike, though.
All those Mr. Draco-related jokes, though.
It’s great that there’s a kid with a platypus costume.
Well, at least Dakota and Cavendish are perceptive enough to realize that they got the holiday wrong (albeit in a very funny way).
Of course this would be what the song is all about. It’s decent, and it somehow feels very Phineas and Ferb-y. And it’s, as always, impressive, that Povenmire keeps Dakota’s voice so distinctly Dakota’s and not Doofenshmirtz’s even while singing a song.
And of course they dress up as Phineas and Ferb, too. Why not?
Well, this is the moment where the trip really goes sour.
I guess I was wrong. Zack did find out. Maybe in a twist, none of the others will and they won’t believe that he’s traumatized about what really happened but they’ll think it was about something inside the truck after all?
Nope – Milo, at least, also figures it out.
It’s called a cliffhanger. Nice use of it. And I suppose that means it’s just the one-off, rather than the three short stories I expected. More like Excaliferb than Tri-State Trilogy of Terror, then.
Of course you’re not the man, Zack. It wasn’t even your backpack, remember?
Well, at least Melissa and Sara are enjoying themselves.
Those two don’t know everything about each other, apparently. And I’m pretty sure dragging an entire truck back up a cliff like that isn’t actually possible.
Like I said, at least Melissa and Sara are enjoying themselves. ‘The girls’ as Zack put it, which reminds me that this is a familiar pattern from PnF in episodes where it would be Phineas-Ferb-Candace-Isabella. Main heroes, plus main character’s older sister, plus girl who might have crush on main character. (Okay, with Isabella it was never ambiguous. Still, the pattern is there, isn’t it?)
When will Elliot ever become genre savvy enough to realize that Milo and Zack aren’t actually trying to commit safety violations? That they are on a runaway truck?
Swapped pumpkins? Time for Dakota and Cavendish to realize and panic in three, two, one…
Although Cavendish is right to chew Dakota out for ten minutes, they could have spent those ten minutes, you know, finding the pumpkin with the time grenade.
Isn’t there some sort of tracking device on the time grenade?
I love Zack’s expression and Milo’s casual attitude as they wipe the candy off with the windshield wipers.
And the ‘Empty Warehouse’.
Don’t you guys live near Danville, Sara? You shouldn’t be surprised by the laws of physics being broken.
Zack, you shouldn’t respond to a lot of these things.
At least Mort is self-aware enough to know they are bad at planning parties… and Milo, Zack, Sara and Melissa are there to help them out.
Glad to see everyone likes the truck, even if none of that candy is really, you know, edible anymore.
Of course Dakota was going to miss catching the time grenade. Cavendish’ facial expression makes it. This would be a good ‘people who have never seen this show explain what’s happening’ screenshot.
So Dakota and Cavendish caused leap years. That’s great. And I love the visit to Rome and ‘beware the Ides of March’. Even if the ides was technically not a holiday.
Is Sara even scared just from looking at Milo now?
Yeah, Zack really should have put more trust in Milo’s ability to terrify him.
This show is so random. And I’ve really come to enjoy the theme song – opening and ending version – by now.
This episode was pretty good, by the way. Zack certainly learned some morals about horror, the girls remained oblivious throughout, and I didn’t manage to guess all the plot twists. It was fun and entertaining. And now I’m really curious how next year’s fight against the Pistachions will play out. Although I did hear there’s a Christmas episode first, so that ought to be good too.