Modern partner 2018

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The Megalist

2020.09.24 21:07 Startropic1 The Megalist

Here is our comprehensive list of every single mecha anime (and some Tokusatsu) series, OVA, & movie ever made:
Important note about Korean works: Korean animation developed a bit late, and Japanese anime had been banned in Korea up until the late 1980s. Due to this fact, combined with the art form being in its infancy in Korea, many older Korean works were blatant knockoffs of Japanese works. These works also typically received extremely poor quality translations if they were translated at all. By the late 1990s Korean animation had finally established its footing and put out better quality and more original content. The best example of this known to english speaking regions is Iron Kid, known as Eon Kid in english. We encourage the embrace of more modern Korean animation, but take heed of this history when exploring the Korean works of old.
Other terms:
Hentai - This is the term for pornographic anime. While it is extremely rare for a hentai title to be released in the mecha genre, such titles do exist. In the interest of completion we have included these select few titles in the megalist, but they are appropriately noted as such. Viewers be advised.
HK Subs - Subtitled in english by english speaking regions in Asia, usually Hong Kong. These are typically lower quality due to the translators not being native english speakers or in some cases limited knowledge of english. The worst cases of these are found on bootleg DVDs which are very prevalent in some Asian countries outside of Japan.
HK Dub - On some occasions anime was dubbed in english in english speaking regions of Asia. These usually suffer the same problems as HK subs. The most infamous example is the english dub of Transformers Headmasters and Victory.
Fansub - Fan subs are usually good quality subs created by fans for anime that has never received an official license for release in the english speaking western world. A very large portion of the megalist is unlicensed, particularly anime from the 1980s or older. If an anime does get licensed, its fansubbing project will be halted. Official licenses is the universal goal for all the anime we cover.
1963
Mighty Atom/Astro Boy (01/01/1963 - 31/12/1966; 193 episodes first 104 eng dubbed, last 89 eng-sub only) The very first anime, by god of manga Osamu Tezuka. Tetsujin #28/Gigantor (20/10/1963 - 27/05/1966; 83 episodes, only first 52 episodes eng dubbed ) Popularized robots that were giant 8 Man/Tobor the 8th Man (07/11/1963 - 31/12/1964; 56 episodes, first 52 episodes eng dubbed) First cybernetic characters
1964
Astro Boy: Hero of Space (25/07/1964; Compilation movie of eps 46, 56 and 71)
1965
Space Ace (Very first production of Tatsunoku - Only first 3 episodes eng fansubbed)
1966
Rainbow Squadron Robin (23/04/1966 - 24/03/1967; 48 episodes untranslated) Cyborg 009 (movie) (21/07/1966) Team of cyborgs (eng fansubbed) Robotan (01/10/1966 - 27/09/1968; 104 episodes untranslated, presumed lost)
1967
Cyborg 009 and the Monster Wars (movie) (19/03/1967) (eng fansubbed) Adventure Boy Shadar (18/09/1967 - 30/03/1968; 156 episodes untranslated) Giant Robo/Johnny Sokko and his Flying Robot (11/10/1967 - 01/04/1968; live-action, 26 episodes eng-dubbed)
1968
Golden Iron Man (Korean)
1969
The Flying Ghost Ship (eng subbed very early work of Studio Ghibli's Hayao Miyazaki)
1970
Kaitei 3-Man Mile (Untranslated)
1971
Lightning Atom (Korean) The Return of Lightning Atom (Korean)
1972
Astroganger, First colour mecha anime (only first 2 episodes eng fansubbed) Hellhound Liner 0011, Transform! (eng fansubbed) Mazinger Z, first "Super Robot" and first piloted (65 episodes eng dubbed, last 27 eng fansubbed) Rainbowman (Later remade into a mecha anime)
1973
Babel II (Fansubbed up to episode 14 *in progress) Doraemon (26 eps) (Most episodes lost) Mazinger Z vs. Devilman (eng fansubbed) Neo-Human Casshern (eng subbed) Zero Tester (Sunrise's first mecha series. Untranslated)
1974
Getter Robo, First Combining robots (Eng fansubbed) Great Mazinger (Eng subbed) Mazinger Z vs. Dr. Hell (eng fansubbed) Mazinger Z vs. The Great General of Darkness (eng fansubbed)
1975
Brave Raideen (first robot to transform in a realistic style.) (Eng fansubbed up to ep 32, in progress) Getter Robo G (First 26 episodes eng dubbed as part of Force Five, all eps eng fansubbed.) Great Mazinger vs. Getter Robo (eng fansubbed) Great Mazinger vs. Getter Robo G: The Great Space Encounter (eng fansubbed) The Great Battle of the Flying Saucers (Pilot movie for UFO Robo Grendizer, eng fansubbed) Space Knight Tekkaman (13 eps all eng fansubbed) Steel Jeeg (eng fansubbed *completed 2018*) Time Bokan (Some episodes eng dubbed as Timefighters, largely untranslated) UFO Robo Grendizer (26 episodes dubbed as Force Five, all eps eng fansubbed)
1976
Blocker Gundan IV Machine Blaster (Eps 1-7 eng fansubbed, ongoing) Countdown Robo (unknown?) Demon Dragon of the Heavens Gaiking (26 episodes eng dubbed as Force Five, all eps fully eng subbed) Goliath the Super Fighter (First mecha series with female lead character, Untranslated) Grendizer, Getter Robo G, Great Mazinger: Decisive Battle! The Great Sea Monster (Fansubbed) Groizer X (First 4 episodes eng fansubbed. *ongoing) Iron Man 007 (Korean) Magne Robo Ga-Keen (First 8 episodes fan-subbed, ongoing) Robot Child Beeton (Untranslated) Super Electromagnetic Robo Combattler V (First part of the Super Robot Romance Trilogy) (Eng HK subbed) UFO Robo Grendizer vs. Great Mazinger (Fansubbed) UFO Warrior Dai Apolon (Eng fansubbed *completed 2018) UFO Warrior Dai Apolon 2 (Untranslated) Robot Taekwon V (Korean) Robot Taekwon V Jae2tan: Wooju-jakjeon (Korean)
1977
Dinosaur War Izenborg (First 26 episodes eng fansubbed *ongoing) Glacier Warrior Guyslugger (Untranslated) Invincible Super Man Zanbot 3 (eng fansubbed) Jetter Mars (Created by Osamu Tezuka to temporarily replace Astro Boy due to copyright complications - Fansubbed up to episode 13 *status unknown*) Mechander Robo (Asian english dubbed, first episode eng fansubbed, ongoing) Planetary Robo Danguard Ace (Eng dubbed/edited into movie trilogy, Up to episode 11 fansubbed ongoing) Planetary Robo Danguard Ace vs. The Army of Insect Robots (eng fansubbed) Robot Taekwon V 3: Undersea Mission (Korean) Super Electromagnetic Machine Voltes V (Second part of the Super Robot Romance Trilogy) (HK Dub, eng fansubbed, licensed eng subs coming soon) Superhuman Combat Team Baratack (Untranslated) Super Supercar Gattiger (Untranslated) Ultra-Transforming Magic Robot Ginguiser (Up to ep 9 fansubbed *ongoing) Yatterman (108 eps) (Time Bokan series, Up to episode 7 eng fansubbed)
1978
Daikengo, The Guardian of Space (Fully eng fansubbed *Complete 2018) Fighting King Daimos (Third and final installment of the Super Robot Romance Trilogy) (Fulling eng fansubbed) Gold Wing 123 (korean) Invincible Steel Man Daitarn 3 (Fully eng fansubbed) Mazinger X (korean) Planetary Robo Danguard Ace: The Great Space War (short film, fully fansubbed) Robot Taekwon V vs Golden Wing 123 (korean) Starzinger (First 26 episodes eng dubbed as part of Force Five, Eng fansubbed up to episode 13 *Fansubber on hiatus)
1979
Doraemon (1787 eps) Doraemon: It's Autumn! Doraemon: It's New Year! Doraemon: It's Spring! Doraemon: It's Summer! Doraemon: It's Winter! Fighting King Daimos: The Movie Future Robo Daltanias (Fully eng fansubbed) Gordian The Warrior (Up to ep 6 fansubbed, ongoing) Marine Express (eng fansubbed) Mobile Suit Gundam (first Real Robot anime and first anime to attract a teen audience) Space Black Knight (Korean) Spaceboy Cache (Korean) Starzinger II (Untranslated) Starzinger: The Movie (Eng fansubbed) Zenderman (Time Bokan series, Untranslated)
1980
Cyborg 009: Legend of the Super Galaxy (Eng Dub only) 007 Boys: Galaxies Together (Korean) Astro Boy (52 eps) (Fully eng dubbed & subbed, licensed releases) Doraemon Movie 1: Nobita's Dinosaur Invincible Robo Trider G7 (Fully Fansubbed) Otasukeman (Time Bokan series, untranslated) Space Emperor God Sigma (Untranslated) Space Runaway Ideon (Fully Fansubbed) Space Warrior Baldios (Fully Fansubbed) Tetsujin 28 (51 eps) (Fully eng dubbed and fansubbed)
1981
007 Boys: Underground Empire (Korean) Beast King GoLion (Fully eng dubbed as Voltron, fully subbed as GoLion, licensed releases) Demon God of the War-Torn Land GoShogun (Eng dubbed as part of Macron 1. Fully subbed, licensed release.) Doraemon Movie 2: The Record of Nobita - Spaceblazer Doraemon TV Special 1: What Am I for Momotaro? Dr. Slump (Shonnen 75 out of 243 eps fansubbed) Fang of the Sun Dougram (Fully eng fansubbed) Galactic Whirlwind Braiger (First part of the J9 Trilogy, Fully eng fansubbed) Golden Warrior: the Gold Lightan (Up to episode 32 fansubbed, ongoing) Mechanical Boy Dotakon (Untranslated) Mobile Suit Gundam: The Movie (first of the trilogy compiling Mobile Suit Gundam (1979) into movies, this helped boost popularlity of Gundam a lot which meant Zeta was created. Fully eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam The Movie II: Soldiers of Sorrow (Fully eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Robotic Rocket Thunder (Unknown?) Six God Combination Godmars (Fully eng subbed, licensed release) Space Warrior Baldios: The Movie (Eng dubbed & Subbed, licensed release) Ultimate Robo Daihoja (Untranslated) Yattodetaman (Time Bokan series, Untranslated)
1982
Armored Fleet Dairugger XV (Eng dubbed as Vehicle Voltron, Eng subbed as Dairugger XV, licensed release) Combat Mecha Xabungle (Fully Eng-fansubbed. Licensed sub release coming) Demon Regions Legend Acrobunch (Fully Eng Fansubbed *2019*) Doraemon Movie 3: Nobita and the Haunts of Evil Future Boy 1720: Bermuda in 5000 (Korean) Galactic Gale Baxinger (Second part of the J9 Trilogy, Up to episode 16 eng fansubbed) Ippatsuman the Antihero (Time Bokan series, untranslated) Marine-X (Unknown) Mobile Suit Gundam The Movie III: Encounters in Space (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Rainbowman (Untranslated) Robby the Rascal (Untranslated) Six God Combination Godmars: The Movie (Eng Subbed, licensed release) Solar 123 (Korean) Space Runaway Ideon: Be Invoked (Finale of Ideon series, eng fansubbed) Space Runaway Ideon: A Contact (Movie adaptation of Ideon series, eng fansubbed) Super Angels (Unknown) Super Dimensional Fortress Macross (First of the SDF Trilogy, Eng dubbed as the first part of Robotech, re-eng dubbed as Macross, also subbed, licensed release.) Super Mazinger 3 (Korean) Super Robot Taekwon V (Korean) Thunderbirds 2086 (Fully Eng dubbed back in the 1980s as part of the UK Thunderbirds series, No subs yet.)
1983
Armored Trooper Votoms (Iconic series that spawned over a dozen OVAs, Fully eng subbed multiple times.) Aura Battler Dunbine (First fantasy mecha series, fully eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Choro Q Dougram (Chibi parody, eng fansubbed) Dallos (Fully subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 4: Nobita's Monstrous Underwater Castle Galactic Drifter Vifam (Features one of the first original english OP songs, fully eng fansubbed) Galactic Whirlwind Sasuraiger (Third entry in the J9 Trilogy, untranslated) Genesis Climber Mospeada (Fully Eng Dubbed as the third part of Robotech, Fully eng subbed as Mospeada, licensed releases) Itadakiman (Time Bokan series, untranslated) Iron Man Angels (Unknown) Lightspeed ElectroGod Albegas (Planned to be Gladiator Voltron in english, but cancelled due to poor reception of Vehicle Voltron, remains untranslated) Mission Outer Space Srungle (Eng dubbed spliced into Macron 1, largely Untranslated) Plastic Model Wrestling Sanshiro (Fully eng fansubbed) Psycho Armor Govarion (Up to episode 7 Eng fansubbed, licensed sub release coming soon) Space Gundam V (korean) Special Armored Battalion Dorvack (Fully eng fansubbed) Super Dimensional Century Orguss (Second SDF series, omitted from Robotech. First 17 eps eng dubbed in 1990s, fully eng subbed, licensed release) Super Express Mazinger 7 (korean) Super Titan 15 (Korean knock off of Vehicle Voltron) The Fang of the Sun Dougram Documents (Movie adaptation of Dougram, eng fansubbed) Xabungle Graffiti (Eng subbed, included with Xabungle series engish licensed release)
1984
Doraemon Movie 5: Nobita's Great Adventure into the Underworld Galactic Drifter Vifam: Atsumatta 13-nin (Untranslated) Galactic Drifter Vifam: Kachua Kara no Tayori (Untranslated) Giant Gorg (Fully eng subbed, licensed release) God Mazinger (Fully Eng Fansubbed *completed 2019*) Heavy Metal L-Gaim (Fully eng fansubbed) Mighty Orbots (Fully Eng dubbed, series cut short due to lawsuit from Tonka over Gobots) Panzer World Galient (Fully Eng Fansubbed) Phoenix-Bot Phoenix King (korean) Robot Taekwon V '84 (korean) Star Musketeer Bismark (Fully eng dubbed with additional episodes as Saber Rider & The Star Sheriffs, eng subbed as Bismark) Super Dimensional Cavalry Southern Cross (Third and final part of the SDF Trilogy, eng dubbed as the second part of Robotech, fully eng subbed as SDC Southern Cross) Super Dimensional Fortress Macross: Do You Remember Love? (edited Eng Dub, uncut eng subbed) Super High Speed Galvion (**2019 UPDATE: It has been found and fansubbing has begun!!** Extremely rare, no home video releases even in Japan, final production from Kokusai Eigasha, the studio that produced the J9 Trilogy) Super Robot Galatt (Untranslated) Transformers (Partner project between US's Hasbro & Japan's Takara) Video Ranger 007 (Korean) Video Warrior Laserion (First anime to feature the concept of VR, untranslated)
1985
2020 Wonder Kid (Korean, beginning of original, non-knockoff Korean animation) Armored Trooper Votoms: The Last Red Shoulder (First of many Votoms OVAs, eng fansubbed) Blue Comet SPT Layzner (Fully eng fansubbed) Demon God of the War-Torn Land Goshogun: The Time Etranger (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Dirty Pair (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Dirty Pair: Affair on Nolandia (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 6: Nobita's Little Star Wars Fight!! Iczer-1 (OVA, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Galactic Drifter Vifam: Kieta 12-nin (Eng fansubbed) Galactic Drifter Vifam: "Keito no Kioku" - Namida no Dakkai Sakusen (Eng fansubbed) It Came From Outer Space (korean) Leda: The Fantastic Adventure of Yokho (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mecha Robot Corps 3 (Korean) Megazone 23 (Eng dubbed & subbed licensed release, alternate eng dub/cut as Robotech: The Movie) Micro-Commando Diatron-5 (korean) Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam (Fully eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Ninja Robots (Eng dubbed in 1990s, HK eng subbed) Rambot 3 (Korean) Solar Adventure (korean) Super Beast Machine God Dancouga (Fully eng subbed, licensed release)
1986
Armored Trooper Votoms: Big Battle (Eng fansubbed) Blue Comet SPT Layzner OVA (eng fansubbed, recape & finale of series) Cool Cool Bye (eng fansubbed) Dancouga: Requiem for Victims (eng subbed, licensed release) Del Power X (eng fansubbed) Doraemon Movie 7: Nobita and the Steel Troops Guyver: Out of Control (Eng subbed, licensed release) Heavy Metal L-Gaim I: Pentagonal Window/Lady Gyabure (series recap, eng fansubbed) It Came From Outer Space 2 (korean) Machine Robo: Revenge of Chronos (HK subs, first 15 episodes officially eng subbed, incomplete due to licensee closure) Megazone 23 Part II (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam ZZ (eng subbed licensed release, one of a select few Gundam titles never eng dubbed) M.D. Geist (title character became mascot for US Manga Corps, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Panzer World Galient OVA (Eng fansubbed) Project A-ko (eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Robotan (33 eps, untranslated) The Humanoid (eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) They Were 11 (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Transformers: Scramble City (eng subbed, licensed release, Japan exclusive short released instead of the movie in 1986) Transformers: The Movie (eng dubbed & subbed--japanese version released several years after the original US release) Wonder Beat Scrumble (Eng subbed by Crunchyroll, possibly lost now)
1987
Black Magic M-66 (eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Bubblegum Crisis (eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Campus Special Investigator Hikaruon (eng fansubbed) Dangaioh: Hyper Combat Unit (eng fansubbed, episodes 2 & 3 only eng dubbed for licensed release. Licensed sub release is a bit sketchy) Dead Heat (First 3D anime, eng fansubbed) Demon Frontier Legend Le Deus (eng fansubbed) Demon of Steel: Battle of the Great Demon Beasts (eng fansubbed) Dirty Pair OVA (eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Dirty Pair: Project EDEN (eng dubbed & subbed licensed release) Dirty Pair: With Love from the Lovely Angels (finale of main series, eng subbed licensed release) Doraemon Movie 8: Nobita and the Dragon Knight Fujiko Fujio no Kiteretsu Daihyakka (Untranslated) God Bless Dancouga (eng subbed) Good Morning Althea (eng fansubbed) Heavy Metal L-Gaim II: Farewell, My Love/Pentagonal Doors (eng fansubbed, recap of series) Heavy Metal L-Gaim III: Fullmetal Soldier (eng fansubbed, sequel to series) It Came From Outer Space 3 (Korean) It Came From Outer Space 4 (Korean) Machine Robo: Battle Hackers (Continuation of Revenge of Cronos, untranslated) Metal Armor Dragonar (up to episode 31 fansubbed, ongoing) Metal Skin Panic MADOX-01 (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Relic Armor Legaciam (Eng fansubbed) Robot Carnival (Eng dub & subbed. Majority of film has no dialogue. Licensed release) Robot Taekwon V and Golden Wing 123 (korean) Super Dimensional Fortress Macross: Flash Back 2012 (eng subbed, licensed release - no dialogue, only singing) Transformers: The Headmasters (Japan exclusive continuation of Transformers, Eng dub & eng subs, eng dub is of extremely poor quality from asian source)
1988
Aim for the Top! Gunbuster (Eng subbed, licensed release) Appleseed (Eng dubbed & Subbed, licensed release) Armor Hunter Mellowlink (Votoms, Eng fansubbed) Armored Trooper Votoms: Red Shoulder Document - Roots of Ambition (Eng fansubbed) (New Story Of) Aura Battler Dunbine: The Tale of Neo Byston Well (Eng fansubbed) Dominion Tank Police (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 9: Nobita's Parallel Journey to the West Dragon's Heaven (Eng fansubbed) Hades Project Zeorymer (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Leina: Wolf Sword Legend (Machine Robo, untranslated) Kiteretsu Encyclopedia (Untranslated) Mobile Police Patlabor OVA (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam: Char's Counterattack (Finale of original Gundam timeline, Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit SD Gundam Mk I (chibi parody, Eng fansubbed) It Came From Outer Space 5 (korean) Six God Combination GodMars: Seventeen Year Old Legend (Eng subbed, licensed release) Sonic Soldier Borgman (Fully Eng fansubbed *Completed 2019*) Space Family Carlvinson (Eng fansubbed) Spirit Hero Wataru (Keith Courage, HK subbed) The Tokyo Project (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Transformers: Super God Master Force (Second Japan exclusive continuation of Transformers, eng subbed, licensed release)
1989
All That Gundam (10th anniversary special) Ariel Visual (Eng subbed, licensed release) Assemble Insert (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Cybernetics Guardian (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Dancouga: Blazing Epilogue (Eng fansubbed) Doraemon Movie 10: Nobita at the Birth of Japan Dorami-chan Movie 1: Mini-Dora SOS (Doraemon) It Came From Outer Space 6 (korean) Jushin Liger (Fully Eng Fansubbed *completed 2019*) Magic King Grandzort (HK subs, up to episode 8 fansubbed) Megazone 23 Part III (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Police Patlabor (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Police Patlabor: The Movie (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam 0080: War in the Pocket (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit SD Gundam Mk II (chibi Eng fansubbed) Mobile Suit SD Gundam Mk III (chibi eng fansubbed) Mobile Suit SD Gundam's Counterattack (chibi eng fansubbed) New Spirit Hero Wataru (Eng fansubbed) Sonic Soldier Borgman: Last Battle (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) The Five Star Stories (Eng subbed, licensed release) The Guyver: Bio-Booster Armor (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Transformers: Victory (Third Japan exclusive continuation of Transformers, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release. eng dub is of extremely poor quality from asian source.)
1990
A.D. Police Files (Bubblegum Crisis, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Brave Exkaiser (First of the Brave/Yuusha series that was created to replace Transformers in Japan. Fully eng fansubbed) Dirty Pair Flight 005 Conspiracy (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 11: Nobita's Animal Planet Hissatsuman (Time Bokan series, only one not made by Tatsunoku untranslated) Lightning Trap: Leina & Laika (Machine Robo, eng fansubbed) Magic King Granzort: The Last of the Magical Wars (HK eng subbed) Mobile Police Patlabor: The New Files (Eng dub & sub, licensed release) Mobile Suit SD Gundam IV (chibi Eng fansubbed) Mobile Suit SD Gundam V (chibi untranslated) Mobile Suit SD Gundam Gaiden (chibi, eng fan translated) Musashi, The Samurai Lord (Untranslated) NG Knight Lamune & 40 (Up to episode 19 eng fansubbed, ongoing) Robot Taekwon V '90 (korean) RPG Legend Hepoi (First 3 eps eng fansubbed, ongoing) Sonic Soldier Borgman: Lovers Rain (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Spirit Hero Wataru: Legend of the Spirit Hero (Keith Courage, Untranslated) Spirit Hero Wataru 2 (Keith Courage, Untranslated) Takegami: Guardian of Darkness (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Transformers: Zone (Finale of Japan exclusive continuation of Transformers, shifted over to manga exclusive. Eng subbed, licensed release)
1991
Absolutely Invincible Raijin-Oh (First Eldran series, another Japan exclusive replacement for Transformers, first 25 eps eng dubbed & subbed, 26-51 eng subbed only due to license budget, licensed release.) (Delux) Ariel (sequel to Ariel Visual, eng subbed, licensed release) Armored Police Metal Jack (Up to episode 5 eng fansubbed, ongoing) Brave Hero of the Sun, Firebird (Second Brave/Yuusha series, fully eng fansubbed) Bubblegum Crash (Finale of original Bubblegum Crisis, Eng dubbed & Subbed, licensed release) CB Character Go Nagai World (Chibi homage to legendary mecha director Go Nagai, eng subbed, licensed release.) Detonator Orgun (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 12: Nobita's Dorabian Nights Dorami-chan Movie 2: Wow, The Kid Gang of Bandits (Doraemon) Emergency Departure Rescue Kids (Untranslated) Getter Robo Go (Up to episode 9 eng fansubbed, ongoing) Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam F91 (movie edition of cancelled Gundam series, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit SD Gundam: Musha, Knight, Commando (chibi, untranslated) NG Knight Lamune & 40 EX (Untranslated) Roujin Z (Early work of the legendary Satoshi Kon, Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) The Guyver: Bio-Booster Armor II (OVA series finale, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release)
1992
All Purpose Cultural Cat Girl Nuku Nuku OVA (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Absolutely Invincible Raijin-Oh OVA (Eng fansubbed) Babel II: The Legend (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Black Lion (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Brave Fighter of Legend DaGarn (Third Brave/Yuusha series, fully eng fansubbed) D-1 Devastator (Part 1 eng fansubbed, project on hiatus) Doraemon Movie 13: Nobita and the Kingdom of Clouds Energetic Bomb Ganbaruger (Second Eldran series, fully eng fansubbed) Genesis Survivor Gaiarth (Eng dubbed & subbed, english release on VHS & laserdisc only) Giant Robo (Adaptation of the Tokusatsu series, Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) It Came From Outer Space 7 (korean) K.O. Beast (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Magic King Granzort: The Adventure (HK eng subbed) Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: The Last Blitz of Zeon (movie version of the OVA series, Eng subbed, licensed release) Super Dimensional Fortress Macross II: Lovers, Again (Non-canon finale of SDF Macross, Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Tekkaman Blade (Eng dubbed & edited as Teknoman-only 43 eps, eng subbed as Tekkaman Blade, all eps, licensed releases) Tetsujin 28 FX (Untranslated)
1993
8 Man After (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Ambassador Magma (based on an Osamu Tezuka work--which was the first colour Tokusatsu series, eng dubbed, licensed release, original Tokusatsu series was also eng dubbed as The Space Giants) Big Wars (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Brave Express Might Gaine (Fourth Brave/Yuusha series, fully eng fansubbed) Casshan: Robot Hunter (Casshern, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 14: Nobita and the Tin-Plate Labyrinth Dorami-chan Movie 3: Hello, Dynosis Kids!! (Doraemon) It Came From Outer Space 8 (korean) Kishin Corps: Alien Defender Geo-Armor (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Matchless Passion Go-Saurer (Eng fansubbed) Mobile Police Patlabor 2: The Movie (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit SD Gundam Festival (Chibi, untranslated) Mobile Suit Victory Gundam, (final Gundam series in original timeline, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Moldiver (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) New Dominion Tank Police (Eng Dubbed & subbed, licensed release) NG Knight Lamune & 40 DX (Untranslated) Shooting Star Machine Gakusaver (Eng fansubbed) Sonic Soldier Borgman 2: New Century 2058 (Eng fansubbed) Spirit Hero Wataru: The Final Hour of the Princess (Eng fansubbed) Super Dimensional Century Orguss 02 (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Time Bokan: Royal Revival (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Whirlwind! Iron Leaguer (Fully Eng fansubbed)
1994
Armored Trooper Votoms: The Brilliant Heretic (Eng fansubbed) Brave Police J-Decker (Fifth Brave/Yuusha series fully eng fansubbed) Dirty Pair Flash (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 15: Nobita's Fantastic Three Musketeers Dorami-chan Movie 4: A Blue Straw Hat (Doraemon) Genocyber (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Giant Robo: Gin-Rei Special (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Iria: Zeiram the Animation (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) It Came From Outer Space 9 (Korean) Key the Metal Idol (Eng subbed & dubbed, licensed release) Lord of Lords Ryu Knight (Fully eng fansubbed) Lord of Lords Ryu Knight: Adeu's Legend (OVA version of Ryu Knight, fully eng fansubbed) Macross 7 (Fully eng fansubbed) Macross Plus (Eng dubbed & subbed, license released in both movie & ova formats, movie is subbed only) Magic Knight Rayearth (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mars (Untranslated) Mega Man (Partner project between US & Japan studios, released in english) Mega Man: Upon A Star (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Fighter G Gundam (Shonen style Gundam, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Red Baron (Up to episode 8 fansubbed, ongoing) Tekkaman Blade II (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Whirlwind! Iron Leaguer: Silver Light (Fully eng fansubbed) Yamato Takeru (Fully eng fansubbed)
1995
Armitage III (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Battle Skipper (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Dokkan! Robotendon (Untranslated) Doraemon Movie 16: Nobita's Genesis Diary Doraemon TV Special 2: 2112 - The Birth of Doraemon Galaxy Fraulein Yuna (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Golden Brave Goldran (Sixth Brave/Yuusha series, fully eng fansubbed) Ghost in the Shell (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Imagination Science World Gulliver Boy (Up to ep 11 fansubbed, project halted) Lord of Lords Ryu Knight: Adeu's Legend II (Eng fansubbed) Macross 7 Encore (Eng fansubbed) Macross 7: The Movie: The Galaxy is Calling Me (Eng fansubbed) Macross Plus: The Movie (Eng subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam Wing (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Saber Marionette R (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Sailor Victory (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Wild Knights Gulkeeva (HK Eng subbed) Yamato Takeru: After War (HK Eng subbed)
1996
After War Gundam X (Eng subbed, licensed released. One of few Gundam series to never be eng dubbed) Apocalypse Zero (Hentai, Eng dubbed & subbed licensed release) Armitage III Polymatrix (Movie version of Armitage III, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) B't X (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Brave Command Dagwon (Seventh Brave/Yuusha series, Fully eng fansubbed) Doraemon Movie 17: Nobita's Galactic Express Doraemon Special: It's Christmas! Doraemon & The Doraemons Super Special Dorami-chan & The Doraemons Movie 1: Robot School's Seven Mysteries Galaxy Fraulein Yuna Returns (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Gundam 08th MS Team (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Lord of Lords Ryu Knight: Adeu's Legend Final (Eng fansubbed) Martian Successor Nadesico (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Maze Megaburst Space OVA (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) M.D. Geist 2 (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam Wing: Operation Meteor (Eng subbed, licensed release) My Dear Marie (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Neon Genesis Evangelion (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Power Dolls (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Raideen the Superior (Fully eng fansubbed) Saber Marionette J (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Twin Signal: Family Game (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Vision of Escaflowne (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) VS Knight Ramune & 40 Fire (Fully eng fansubbed)
1997
B't X Neo (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Brave Command Dagwon: The Boy with Crystal Eyes (Fully eng fansubbed) Don't Leave Me Alone, Daisy (Eng subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 18: Nobita's Adventure in Clockwork City Ehrgeiz: The Next War (Eng subbed, licensed release, only released on VHS & laserdisc) Gundam Wing: Endless Waltz (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Hyper Speed GranDoll (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) King of Braves GaoGaiGar (Eighth and final Brave/Yuusha series. First 25 episodes only eng dubbed, all subbed, licensed release) Legend of the Mystical Ninja (Goemon, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Macross 7 Dynamite (Fully eng fansubbed) Magic Knight Rayearth OVA (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Maze Megaburst Space (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Neon Genesis Evangelion: Death and Rebirth (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Neon Genesis Evangelion: The End of Evangelion (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Saber Marionette J Again (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Sakura Wars OVA (Based on video game series, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Super Demon Hero Wataru (Keith Courage, fully eng fansubbed) The Doraemons Movie 1: The Mysterious Thief Dorapan & The Mysterious Cartel Virus Buster Serge (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Voogie's Angel (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) VS Knight Ramune & 40 Fresh (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release)
1998
All Purpose Cultural Cat Girl Nuku Nuku (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) All Purpose Cultural Cat Girl Nuku Nuku DASH! (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Blue Submarine No.6 (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Brain Powerd (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Bubblegum Crisis Tokyo 2040 (Remake of Bubblegum Crisis, Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 19: Nobita's South Sea Adventure Doraemon TV Special 3: Come Back, Doraemon Cyberteam in Akihabara (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) DinoZone (OVAs packed in with toyline, untranslated) Galactic Drifter Vifam 13 (Untranslated) Gasaraki (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Gekiganger III (The anime in the anime Nadesico, eng subbed, licensed release) Getter Robo: Armageddon (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Gundam: Mission To The Rise (3 min 20th anniversary CGI special, made with english narration) Gundam Wing: Endless Waltz - The Movie (Movie version of Endless Waltz, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Kurogane Communication (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Martian Successor Nadesico: The Prince of Darkness (Finale of Nadesico, Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Mobile Suit Gundam: The 08th MS Team - Miller's Report (Movie version of 08th MS Team, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Neo Ranga (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Saber Marionette J to X (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Spriggan (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Steam Detectives (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Super Mobile Legend Dinagiga (Fully Eng fansubbed) The Doraemons Movie 2: The Great Operation of the Springing Insects Transformers: Beast Wars II (Japan exclusive non-CG version of Beast Wars, fully eng fansubbed) Transformers: Beast Wars II - Leo Prime In Imminent Danger! (Finale of Beast Wars II, eng fansubbed) Voogie's Angel Gaiden: Susume! Super Angels! (Untranslated)
1999
A.D. Police (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Betterman (Spinoff of GaoGaiGar, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Blue Gender (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Breakage (Untranslated) Cyberteam in Akihabara: 2011 Summer Vacations (Eng fansubbed) Cybuster (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) D4 Princess (Fully eng fansubbed) Dai-Guard: Terrestrial Defense Corp. (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Dangaizer 3 (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Doraemon Movie 20: Nobita Gets Lost in Space Dual Parallel! Trouble Adventures (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Eden's Bowy (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Gundress (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Hamos (korean) Infinite Ryvius (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Iron Man 3:53 (unknown) Medabots (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Microman vs. Gorgon (untranslated) RESTOL: Special Rescue Team (korean) Sakura Wars: The Gorgeous Blooming Cherry Blossoms (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Tenamonya Voyagers (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) The Big O (Patner project between Japan & US studios, eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) The Doraemons Movie 3: Strange, Sweets, Strange? The Small Giant, Microman (Untranslated) Transformers: Beast Wars Neo (Japan exclusive non-CG Beast Wars series, first 8 eps eng fansubbed, project on hiatus) Turn A Gundam (One of few Gundam series never eng dubbed. Eng subbed, licensed release) Voogie's Angel: Forever And Ever (Untranslated) Z-Mind (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release) Zoids: Chaotic Century (Eng dubbed & subbed, licensed release)
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2020.09.19 23:32 spummydue [EVENT] Finalising the 6th Five Year Plan - Onto the 7th!

Islamic Republic of Iran
6th/7th Five Year Plans
Entering the future, Contesting obstacles
The current state of the Iranian economy is not a good one by any means and whilst illegal US sanctions in contravention of the JCPOA agreement that we signed up to in good faith do not help this matter, the current Covid-19 crisis has also not helped this and future planning as well as current policy must be tailored to this reality if Iran is to survive long term without the promised alleviation of sanctions through JCPOA.
The 6th Five Year Plan was made with the JCPOA in mind, focussing on expanding foreign investment in Iran through a series of packages and laws to make us a more attractive option including private and foreign investment safeguarding laws brought in in 2018, however with the collapse of the deal as a result of the treacherous USA this plan is now a lame duck in many regards, combined with extremely feeble efforts by the EU to keep the deal alive, Iran now stands poised to rethink the deal in its entirety, however that is neither here nor there at this time, instead we look towards the 7th Development Plan, 2022-2027 and its groundwork, in this we will focus on three primary objectives:
  • Overcoming our obstacles
  • Entering the future
  • Diversification
Overcoming our obstacles: the main aim of this is to assess the impact of the coronavirus as well as the collapse of the JCPOA agreement. A number of paths forward will be explored, with the groundwork for this to begin immediately ahead of the start of next year. Coronavirus has taken a heavy toll on our economy and as we seek to repair this damage we will institute a number of programmes in an effort to curb its effect, of note are the widespread distribution of laptops for government work so that people may work from home if at all possible (although sensitive jobs will still take place on-site), controlled corona-safe measures for shopping and dining out from the home including guidance on mask wearing and distancing from one another and of course the the roll out of a track and trace programme via an app developed in Iran.
In regards to overcoming the sanctions re-imposed by the dog carcass President Trump, we will explore options with our partners in the European Union, who whilst they have been lax in fulfilling their end of the bargin at least pay lip service to it and we are hopeful that we can come to an agreements in expanding economic ties to include not just humanitarian aid but many different goods and services to help enhance our economy. We will also be looking towards Chinese investment with its current pledge standing at nearly $1.5trn over the next 25 years we will begin a series of infrastructure projects as well as other investments in an aid to kickstart our economy, we will also be requesting a further loan from them to help cushion the blow from Coronavirus this year and next.
In April of this year the IMF predicted that the current slump would begin its bounce back next year and whilst oil prices currently hurt the economy there is currently no reason that this should not still take place, giving us a springboard from which to launch the first stages of the 7th Developmental Plan.
Entering the Future: The future of the Iranian economy is one that we see as bright. Iran has been identified multiple times by the IMF as being a potential major economic superpower and quite capable of entering the top 10 world economies if given the right investment, we seek to capitalise on that and the 7th Year Plan will lay the foundations for further plans through a myriad of paths such as changes to foreign and private investment laws, expansion of funding for private tech companies, the expansion of communications infrastructure and finally through changes to energy subsidies. These elements are seen as key to bringing the economy of our country firmly into the modern and future age and exemplifying Iran as a viable and sensible economic market. With the likelihood that sanctions will ease in many departments we will also see investment into maritime ports and other trade routes through Iran in order to expedite imports and exports into our country and make ourselves a viable regional hub outside of the gulf nations.
Diversification: Currently our economy relies heavily on energy exports in both gas and oil, the dangerous nature of this reliance has already taken its toll and we cannot afford to let this shrink further, as such we will be making moves to divest government budgets away from oil money and expand other economic sectors including tertiary sectors and the services industry, with the aim being to completely remove the government budget from oil and instead be able to rely more on a burgeoning and more complex economy with industry, services and tech developments all serving to increase revenues from non-energy sources.
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2020.09.18 13:00 DarthEquus The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 5: 1980-2019

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 5: 1980-2019
A new wave of genital cutting was begun with Wiswell in the '80s based on neonatal UTI incidence. He reached his conclusions by comparing children born in a hospital with universal infant circumcision who were born prematurely and whose poor health had prevented routine circumcision at birth. Notably he also commanded parents to treat the child's foreskin destructively only to use the resultant damage as evidence circumcision was necessary. The bigger question about this unfortunately successful infant genital surgery promotion is how was it ever accepted as valid science? To (1998) found the rate of UTI in Canadian infants was reduced 3.5 times but that was really from only 0.7% to 0.2%. So while it sounds like a lot as a relative rate, it would take almost 200 surgeries to prevent a single UTI.
The much more powerful and significant wave of circumcision activism beginning in the 1980s was the terribly successful lie that male genital cutting could significantly help prevent HIV infection. This idea did not reach significant development until after 2000 when John Hopkins circumcision activists designed and performed the large and expensive African RCTs to "prove" male circumcision prevented HIV infection in men based on studies comparing groups with differing levels of STI awareness counseling, the most likely real cause of the recorded effect. That flaw would be fatal, but there were many other problems with those studies besides that. See Boyle & Hill 2011, Van Howe and Storms (2011), and Green (2008) for critiques of those studies.

1980: ~80% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 67% of adult men

https://preview.redd.it/m52eo19mlim51.jpg?width=840&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=739f5049e289c17c427740de92e278457d754c54
1980 Edward Wallerstein published Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy detailing the sordid history of the medicalized genital cutting movement in the volume that launched the modern intactivist movement.
1982 Former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, M.D. wrote in the Saturday Evening Post: "All of the Western world raises its children uncircumcised and it seems logical that, with the extent of health knowledge in those countries, such a practice must be safe."
1983 Hugh C. Thompson recognized there did not appear to be any good reason to continue circumcision. [The Value of Neonatal Circumcision: An Unanswered and Perhaps Unanswerable Question. Am J Dis Child. — [full text]]
"Neonatologists have regarded the operation [circumcision] as without merit. Physicians in all fields agree on the necessity for careful explanation to the parents, preferably before the infant is born. They deplore the occasional grave complications that are largely produced by poor technique and inexperienced operators. One major reason formerly used to justify neonatal circumcision—correction or prevention of phimosis—has been shown to be untenable by serial studies from birth to adulthood. The major indications now proposed as justifying the procedure are prevention of penile [skin] cancer [which is rarer than male breast cancer] and balanitis and a reduction in herpes genitalis and, possibly, cancer of the uterine cervix [disproved and more recently shown to be caused by HPV]. These diseases are decades removed from the neonatal period, and opponents of circumcision regard them as lacking incontrovertible proof or as inconsequential."
1983 Money & Davison found that four of the five men circumcised as adults in their study rated penile sensitivity as diminished. They didn't describe the difference very articulately but they noted differences included "diminished penile sensitivity, less penile gratification, more penile pain, and cosmetic deformity".
"Removal of the entire foreskin, or even part of it, may require a change in masturbatory technique, insofar as there is less or no redundant [sic] skin to be stretched forward or backward [the eversion of the foreskin is more like rolling but with more fluidity]. Thus, there needs to be more reliance on some other surface, for example, the lubricated skin of the fingers or palm, to provide ether rotary or longitudinal friction directly to the shaft of the penis. What has been lost in circumcision is the stretch effect and hypothetically, receptors that provide proprioceptive stretch sensation from the foreskin. Inside the vagina, the penis must move in and out in the fashion of a finger, rather than being sometimes able, like the head of a turtle to pull in and out of the carapuce of its own foreskin, while the pubococcygeal muscles at the vaginal entrance grip the lower part of the shaft. Stretch sensations may be additionally altered if the frenulum is severed in the circumcision."
[Adult penile circumcision: erotosexual and cosmetic sequelae. J Sex Res.]
1985 Thomas E. Wiswell, a military doctor, used flawed methods to show that circumcision decreased incidence of urinary tract infections by comparing infants born prematurely to infants born at term. [Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics.]
1985 Benjamin Spock finally updated the his best-selling parenting book (first published in 1946): "I strongly recommend leaving the foreskin alone. Parents should insist on convincing reasons for circumcision—and there are no convincing reasons that I know of." Later in a 1989 interview in Redbook, he stated "My own preference, if I had the good fortune to have another son, would be to leave his little penis alone."
1986 Aaron J. Fink claimed that circumcision prevented AIDS. [A possible explanation for heterosexual male infection with AIDS. NEJM.]
1988 Aaron J. Fink invented the idea that circumcision prevented neonatal group B streptococcal disease. [Is hygiene enough? Circumcision as a possible strategy to prevent group B streptococcal disease. AJOG.]
1989 Edgar J. Schoen leads the AAP Task Force on Circumcision declared circumcision is medically beneficial. Reported health benefits are hygiene, penile and cervical cancer, phimosis, STDs, and UTIs.
"In addition to the medical aspects, other factors will affect the parents' decisions, including esthetics, religion, cultural attitudes, social pressures, and tradition."
[Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics]
This report has been extensively criticized for it's failure to provide sound evidence of preventative effects of circumcision, it's lack of a cost-benefit analysis, it's failure to address the functions of the foreskin, and overall bias of the report.
[Matthew R. Giannetti. Circumcision and the American Academy of Pediatrics: Should Scientific Misconduct Result in Trade Association Liability? 85 Iowa L. Rev 1507 (2000).]

1990: ~68% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 70% of adult men

1991 Edgar J. Schoen implored European doctors to institute mass circumcision. [Is it time for Europe to reconsider newborn circumcision? Acta Ped Scan.]
1991 Aaron J. Fink declares mass circumcision is necessary to prevent sand from getting into the soldiers' foreskins. [Circumcision and sand. JRSM.]
1994 Legal victory: Miltex, one of several Mogen clamp manufacturers, stopped distributing the devices in 1994. "Although no obvious defect has been found with the clamp's design or manufacturing we have concerns over the possible mishandling of the instrument by practitioners and our inability to ensure the instrument's proper use," Miltex's then-president Saul Kleinkramer wrote in a letter announcing the decision. The manufacturer was then in default on millions of dollars in lost lawsuits before millions more were lost in additional lawsuits, in total over $23 million. ["Injuries linked to circumcision clamps" Hennessy-Fiske. LA Times. 2011.]
1996 J. R. Taylor et al. found the average amount of foreskin amputated was 51% of the total penile skin on average. They identified the "ridged band contains more Meissner's corpuscles than does the smooth mucosa and exhibits features of specialized sensory mucosa."
"The 'ridged band' may be key to the persistent mislabelling of the inner lining of the prepuce as 'skin'; it is clearly visible on inspection of the retracted prepuce, it is continuous with the wrinkled true skin of the tip of the prepuce, and it looks like skin. Histology aside, the 'wrinkles' of the ridged band are regularly transverse and are difficult to efface by gentle stretching. A vascular blush is usually present.
The vascular ridges of the 'ridged band' and its Meissner's corpuscles firmly separate preputial epithelium from true skin and place preputial mucosa amongst other mucocutaneous mucosae. Winkelmann emphasized the structural and functional importance of junctional regions of the body and focused on mucocutaneous end-organs, or 'genital corpuscles', of the glans penis and prepuce. Some of these end-organs resemble Krause end-bulbs; others resemble Meissner's corpuscles.
Meissner's corpuscles of the prepuce may be compared with similar nerve-endings in the finger-tips and lips, which respond in a fraction of a second to contact with light objects that bring about deformation of their capsules. However, complex sensation, at least in the glans penis, may be mediated by free nerve-endings rather than by specialized end-organs."
[The prepuce: Specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. BJU.]
1996 Political victory against female genital cutting: Non-therapeutic female cutting in all forms were made illegal in the US. [United States Code, 2010 Ed., Title 18, Chapter 7 (Assault), §116 - Female genital mutilation]
1997 Edgar J. Schoen again suggested European countries should institute non-therapeutic circumcision. [Benefits of newborn circumcision: Is Europe ignoring the medical evidence? Arch Dis Child.]
1997 Lander et al. found that circumcision without anesthesia was extremely traumatic for babies. Before this, almost all neonatal cutting were done without anesthetic due to increased risks involved with using it and the prevalent false belief babies were not capable of feeling significant pain or can't remember it. [Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision. JAMA.]
1997 Taddio et al. wrote on the effect of the pain of infant circumcision being measurable later:
"Preliminary studies suggested that pain experienced by infants in the neonatal period may have long-lasting effects on future infant behaviour. The objectives of this study were to find out whether neonatal circumcision altered pain response at 4-month or 6-month vaccination compared with the response in uncircumcised infants...
"Multivariate ANOVA revealed a significant group effect (p < 0.001) in difference (vaccination minus baseline) values for percentage facial action, percentage cry time, and visual analogue scale pain scores. Univariate ANOVAs were significant for all outcome measures (p < 0.05): infants circumcised with placebo had higher difference scores than uncircumcised infants for percentage facial action (136.9 vs 77.5%), percentage cry duration (53.8 vs 24.7%), and visual analogue scale pain scores (5.1 vs 3.1 cm). There was a significant linear trend on all outcome measures, showing increasing pain scores from uncircumcised infants, to those circumcised with Emla [topical anesthetic], to those circumcised with placebo.
Circumcised infants showed a stronger pain response to subsequent routine vaccination than uncircumcised infants. Among the circumcised group, preoperative treatment with Emla attenuated the pain response to vaccination. We recommend [anesthetic] treatment to prevent neonatal circumcision pain."
[Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet .]
1997 The AAP deems infant male circumcision to be an elective procedure rather than routine.
1998 Immerman and Mackey proposed that male genital cutting reorganizes the brain to restrain sexuality and positively influence both social and pair bonding. They noted: "It appears that any sensory deprivation of a system can also lead to cortical changes."
"They assumed desensitizing the penis should reduce sexuality, but that ignores the fact that genital cutting permanently externalizes the orgasmic interior parts of the penis. This sensorial change could as easily be thought to promote sexual thoughts. Supporting the later idea, there are exceptions, but generally homophobia is considerably more common in circumcising cultures or those derived from or strongly influenced by circumcising cultures. This could be because men with circumcised penises have more difficulty perceiving homosexuality as something other than sex."
1999 Cold & Taylor studied the foreskin's specialized innervation and concluded that it is "primary erogenous tissue necessary for normal sexual function." It is specialized, protective, erogenous tissue. A description of the complex nerve structure of the penis explains why anesthetics provide incomplete pain relief during circumcision. [The prepuce. BJU. pdf]
1999 The AAP Task Force on Circumcision reviewed 40 years worth of medical studies and concluded the "potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision… are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision." This report was the first time the AAP acknowledged that circumcision without anesthesia is traumatic and that if circumcision is to be done, anesthesia should be used. Some highlights from the report:
Role of Hygiene: "there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimum penile hygiene."
STDs including HIV: "behavioral factors appear to be far more important than circumcision status."
Penile Cancer: "in a developed country such as the United States, penile cancer is a rare disease and the risk of penile cancer developing in an uncircumcised man, although increased compared with a circumcised man, is low."
Urinary Tract Infections: "breastfeeding was shown to have a threefold protective effect on the incidence of UTI in a sample of uncircumcised infants. However, breastfeeding status has not been evaluated systematically in studies assessing UTI and circumcision status." meaning that the earlier UTIs studies results were confounded. Even if their numbers were accurate, in order to prevent one UTI during the first year of life by circumcising a baby boy, approximately 195 babies who will not get a UTI would need to be circumcised. Curiously, while female infants develop UTIs at higher rates than boys, the standard treatment is antibiotics not surgery. The AAP concludes this section noting that "the absolute risk of developing a UTI in an uncircumcised male infant is low (at most, ~1%)".
[AAP Task Force on Circumcision. Circumcision Policy Statement, Pediatrics 1999;103(3):686-93.]

2000: ~62% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 75% of adult men

2003 Edgar J. Schoen pressured the AAP to reverse its policy on circumcision, claiming it prevents AIDS. [It's wise to circumcise: time to change policy. Pediatrics.]
2005-2007 Johns Hopkins three studies were all ended early with the conclusion that circumcision is "like a vaccine" that prevents HIV infection. These three African studies were widely reported falsely to be gold-standard evidence of major HIV benefit from circumcision. The results of the African RCTs could easily be explained by the varying levels of STI awareness counseling between the two groups because the counseling was provided along with the surgery. Selection bias in groups of men who wanted the surgery when half were denied what they wanted, while half were given the surgery they wanted and instructed about sexual disease and safe sex. In all the studies, five times more participants were lost than seroconverted. [Auvert, 2005; Bailey & Moses, 2005; Gray, 2007]
2000 The U.S. FDA "issued a public health notice about the Mogen and Gomco clamps after receiving about 20 injury reports a year since 1996, including lacerations, hemorrhaging, penile amputation and urethral damage. Instead of recalling the devices, the FDA advised users to make sure they were using the correct size Mogen clamp and that the space between the clamp's jaws met manufacturer's specifications. The agency also cautioned against using replacement parts on the Gomco clamp, which led it to malfunction.
But complications continued. In the 11 years between the FDA warnings and the Hall settlement, the agency has received 139 additional reports of problems related to circumcision clamps, including 51 injuries, said spokeswoman Amanda Sena. Twenty-one of those reports were related to Mogen clamps, all but one of which involved injuries. ["Injuries linked to circumcision clamps" Hennessy-Fiske. LA Times. 2011.]
2000 Circumcision is described as an intervention with long-term neurobehavioral effects:
"The brain of the newborn infant is particularly vulnerable to early adverse experiences, leading to abnormal development and behavior. Although several investigations have correlated newborn complications with abnormal adult behavior, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains rudimentary. Models of early experience, such as repetitive pain, sepsis, or maternal separation in rodents and other species have noted multiple alterations in the adult brain, correlated with specific behavioral types depending on the timing and nature of the adverse experience. The mechanisms mediating such changes in the newborn brain have remained largely unexplored. Maternal separation, sensory isolation (understimulation), and exposure to extreme or repetitive pain (overstimulation) may cause altered brain development. These changes promote two distinct behavioral types characterized by increased anxiety, altered pain sensitivity, stress disorders, hyperactivity/attention deficit disorder, leading to impaired social skills and patterns of self-destructive behavior. The clinical importance of these mechanisms lies in the prevention of early adverse experiences and effective treatment of newborn pain and stress."
[Anand, K. and Scalzo, F. Can Adverse Neonatal Experiences Alter Brain Development and Subsequent Behavior? Biol Neonate]
2001 Kenneth McGrath detailed the anatomy of the frenular delta. [The frenular delta: a new preputial structure In: Denniston GC, Hodges FM, Milos MF, editors. Understanding Circumcision: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to a Multi-Dimensional Problem]
2002 D. Taves tested the hypothesis the foreskin reduces friction finding it did so more than 10 times (when friction is great enough to engage this feature). [The intromission function of the foreskin. Med Hypotheses.]
2003 Bensley & Boyle found circumcision contributes to vaginal dryness. Women reported they were significantly more likely to have experienced vaginal dryness during intercourse with circumcised than with genitally intact men. [Effects of Male Circumcision on Female Arousal and Orgasm. N Z Med J.]
2007 M. Sorrells tested the fine touch sensitivity of the penis and found the foreskin is the most sensitive part of the penis, while the glans is the least. [Fine touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. BJU Int.NSFW diagram comparing circumcised and intact sensitivity (penis graphic)]
"The most sensitive location on the circumcised penis was the circumcision scar on the ventral surface. Five locations on the uncircumcised penis that are routinely removed at circumcision had lower pressure thresholds [i.e., were more sensitive] than the ventral scar of the circumcised penis."
YouTube: Morris Sorrels discusses his test and it's results
2007 The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) recommended against performing female circumcision or other non-therapeutic female genital cutting surgeries, because the promotion of the surgery as sexually enhancing was not based on empirical evidence and the surgeries were not medically indicated. This was the first assertion of what had become common wisdom over only the past 30 years. Female cutting for benefits was being promoted in popular US media into the 1970s.

2010: ~58% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 73% of adult men

https://preview.redd.it/2j9m4h0ilim51.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=f9d0171c30fc2358754a2e33b07eee15cfe0c4e6
2010 The American Academy of Pediatrics published a statement on Female Genital Cutting policy proposing a "ritual nick" to be performed by medical professionals. Outrage ensued. The statement was retracted one month later.
[Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors. AAP Committee in Bioethics]
2010 Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) stated the foreskin is "a complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important role in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse and masturbation". The organization also stated "circumcision of male minors is a violation of children’s rights to autonomy and physical integrity."
2011 Morten Frisch et al. examined associations of male circumcision with a range of measures of sexual dysfunction in both sexes.
The relevant graph from Circumstitions.com
"Age at first intercourse, perceived importance of a good sex life and current sexual activity differed little between circumcised and uncircumcised men or between women with circumcised and uncircumcised spouses. However, circumcised men reported more partners and were more likely to report frequent orgasm difficulties after adjustment for potential confounding factors [11 vs 4%, OR(adj) = 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-7.47], and women with circumcised spouses more often reported incomplete sexual needs fulfilment (38 vs 28%, OR(adj) = 2.09; 95% CI 1.05-4.16) and frequent sexual function difficulties overall (31 vs 22%, OR(adj) = 3.26; 95% CI 1.15-9.27), notably orgasm difficulties (19 vs 14%, OR(adj) = 2.66; 95% CI 1.07-6.66) and dyspareunia [painful intercourse] (12 vs 3%, OR(adj) = 8.45; 95% CI 3.01-23.74). Findings were stable in several robustness analyses, including one restricted to non-Jews and non-Moslems.
Our study shows hitherto unrecognized associations between male circumcision and sexual difficulties in both men and women. While confirmatory findings in other settings are warranted, notably from areas where neonatal circumcision is more common, our findings may inform doctors and parents of baby boys for whom the decision of whether or not to circumcise is not dictated by religious or cultural traditions. Additionally, since it appears from our study that both men and women may have fewer sexual problems when the man is uncircumcised, and because preputial plasties may sometimes serve as suitable alternatives to standard circumcision, our study may stimulate a more conservative, tissue-preserving attitude in situations where foreskin pathology requires surgical intervention."
[Male circumcision and sexual function in men and women: a survey-based, cross-sectional study in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol.]
YouTube: Medical researcher Morten Frisch speaks about research finding an increased rate of sexual difficulties correlating with circumcision
2012 S. Podnar found the ability to elicit the penilo-cavernosus reflex was suppressed by foreskin destruction. This reflex was non-elicitable in 8% of healthy intact men and 73% of the men with circumcised foreskin. [Clinical elicitation of the penilo-cavernosus reflex in circumcised men. BJU Int.]
2012 In a short-lived political victory followed by a loss, a Cologne District Court ruled that a boy's non-therapeutic circumcision constituted "bodily harm". In response to this legal precedent and resultant pressure from religious groups on politicians, the German legislature legalized non-therapeutic infant foreskin destruction less than a year later against the opinion of German Pediatricians and the majority of the nation.
2013 G. A. Bronselaer et al. surveyed over 1,000 intact and over 300 circumcised men in Belgium. They found:
"For the glans penis, circumcised men reported decreased sexual pleasure and lower orgasm intensity. They also stated more effort was required to achieve orgasm, and a higher percentage of them experienced unusual sensations (burning, prickling, itching, or tingling and numbness of the glans penis). For the penile shaft a higher percentage of circumcised men described discomfort and pain, numbness and unusual sensations. In comparison to men circumcised before puberty, men circumcised during adolescence or later indicated less sexual pleasure at the glans penis, and a higher percentage of them reported discomfort or pain and unusual sensations at the penile shaft.
This study confirms the importance of the foreskin for penile sensitivity, overall sexual satisfaction, and penile functioning. Furthermore, this study shows that a higher percentage of circumcised men experience discomfort or pain and unusual sensations as compared with the uncircumcised population. Before circumcision without medical indication, adult men, and parents considering circumcision of their sons, should be informed of the importance of the foreskin in male sexuality."
[Male circumcision decreases penile sensitivity as measured in a large cohort. BJU Int.]
2016 Jennofer Bossio publishes a study claiming no difference in penile sensitivity between circumcised and intact men. Though the intact men reported higher sensitivity for touch and vibration, she made her final conclusion based on the two groups response to pain, which showed jo statistical difference. [Examining Penile Sensitivity in Neonatally Circumcised and Intact Men Using Quantitative Sensory Testing. J Urol. 2016 Jun.]
The media, of course, ran with the conclusion, despite the methodological flaws in the study. Brian Earp discusses the study and it's limited impact on our understanding of long term effects of infant male circumcision.
[Infant Circumcision and Adult Penile Sensitivity.]
2017 The 2012 AAP statement on circumcision expired and since then, they have not released any policy statements on the procedure.
2018 In Iceland, the Progressive Party made a motion to ban all non therapeutic genital cutting of boys. The bill received massive pushback from religious communities. It has not been passed, but neither has it been scrapped.
[183/148 frumvarp: almenn hegningarlög]

Looking forward

This timeline is meant to help show the series of events that led us from a circumcision rate of almost zero, to a country of normalized, routine circumcision, and finally to a country desperately trying to justify the practice. Despite the most stubborn traditionalists, the practice is dying out. We can acknowledge the history of medical circumcision and recognize it is nothing but sexual violence and snake oil claims and bring this practice to a swift end, and ensure that out future children will live their lives with their whole bodies. Or we can cling to comforting lies, and allow the insecure and ignorant damage their children for life to protect their own egos. Future generations will look back at us now and have the same reactions of disgust and disbelief many readers here had when looking at the justifications given 100 or more years ago.
Our future children deserve better.

Previous: 1940-1979

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2020.09.17 15:54 everything_possible The shadow side of "Yerevan Press Club"

The shadow side of
The information space in the modern world plays an important role. It creates trends and shapes public opinion. Therefore, the ability to control the media agenda, or at least correct it, is becoming an important element of soft power politics.
“Yerevan Press Club” (YPC) is the most authoritative organization in the journalistic environment of Armenia today. The main task of the press club is to support the media working towards strengthening democratic institutions and the formation of civil society in the country. The key governing body of the YPC is the Board and the Council, whose members are elected by voting at least once every two years (the last took place in April 2019).

https://preview.redd.it/v82p9d0arpn51.jpg?width=1030&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5e018c2c958a7198d1967da2a85e5f10272e38f9
Despite this, Boris Navasardyan, like most of its members, has been the chairman of the press club since its inception. There are 15 people on the board, most of whom are graduates of the Yerevan Brusov State University of Languages and Social Sciences or the Faculty of Philology of Yerevan State University, are members of the Union of Journalists of Armenia. However, there are exceptions. For example, Gayane Markosyan is the PR manager of the Armenian branch of the Synopsys. The company focuses on software development, automation and various IT technologies. In Armenia, as in other foreign offices, it has its own educational base, interacts with educational institutions, and also conducts active social activities, including in the interests of promoting the "American Dream". Basically, YPC is financed by the US Agency for International Development, that in 2019 provided 67% of the organization's budget through grants from the Center for Media Initiatives and the Association of Armenian Financiers. If the distribution of grants by the United States Agency for International Development to please Washington has long been no secret, then the approach to financing from the European Union is interesting, where more than 80% of deductions go to two German funds - Friedrich Ebert and the International Legal cooperation. The first is associated with the "Social Democratic Party of Germany", which now together with the "Christian Union of Germany" and a number of other parties form a majority in the German parliament. This explains his activities - assistance to the German government in ensuring foreign policy, strengthening democratic forces and promoting "political talents". The second fund was founded by the German government and with federal money promotes the ideas of EU enlargement, as well as strengthening law and the rule of law in partner countries, including through supporting media transparency. By the way, the Friedrich Ebert Foundation also finances meetings within the framework of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum, the main objectives of which are to spread European values ​​and prepare Belarus, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan for membership in the EU. Oddly enough, the coordinator of this project in Armenia is YPC President Boris Navasardian. YPC's partner is the non-governmental organization ALDA or the European Association for Local Democracy, established in 1999 at the initiative of the Council of Europe. She is engaged in establishing links between non-governmental organizations of a pro-European orientation, representatives of the EU and local authorities, as well as promoting people with an active civic position, support and support of local NGOs into this very government. In Armenia, the office of the organization is located in Gyumri. The main focus of the YPC projects is to expand cooperation with European countries and the United States. Thus, four months before the early parliamentary elections in Armenia - September 2-4, 2018, with the support of the Friedrich Ebert Navasardian Foundation, he held a seminar on the topic "Extraordinary parliamentary elections in Armenia in the context of EU - Republic of Armenia relations", at which issues of cooperation and support by European forces of the upcoming electoral process. In addition, again on the eve of the elections, YPC monitored the republic's media covering the elections to the National Assembly (December 9, 2018) within the framework of the Media for Informed Citizen Participation project, funded by the US Agency for International Development. By the way, the last project was initiated in 2015 and completed quite recently. Its goal was to increase the involvement of citizens in the creation of content and, in fact, its correct coverage by the media, especially target ones, which form the agenda in the country. It is within the framework of this project that the Media Observer program has been broadcasted weekly on Channel One of Armenia (audience of about 3.5 million people) since September 2019.
However, not only Washington, but also Berlin is concerned about the formation of correct journalism in Armenia. For example, in June 2019, a conference was held with the German Foundation for International Legal Cooperation on media transparency, good governance, journalistic ethics and media law. Another interesting project is Civic Participation in Local Government, funded by the US Agency for International Development. The events are aimed at promoting the initiative as a platform for reform, as well as lobbying at the local level of the necessary organizations, for example, InfoTun. Within the framework of the project, this year alone, two seminars were held: January 17-19 - on the topic “The current stage of territorial reforms and local self-government in Armenia”; January 24-26 - on the topic "The role of local government in the development of democracy."
In the context of the efforts made by foreign foundations in the media space of Armenia, the adoption in August the law "On Audiovisual Media" looks quite consistent. He limited broadcasting in a non-state language and most of all this hit the agenda of the Russian Federation - the Russian channels "First", "RTR Planeta" and "Culture" were excluded from free access. At the same time, the opportunities of the NGO “Yerevan Press Club” are used to spread the agenda necessary for the West.
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2020.09.16 20:47 PeterTim1436043 More reflection - harder for me to accept modern life

tl;dr
Having committed myself to psychotherapy and psychedelics, I was rewarded with trauma being healed and a greater self-acceptance but also with a lot of (self-)reflection on various issues in life / in our society and seeing more "truth". How can I be part of our modern society when I see so much that is wrong with it?
Long version
Hi Community,
I would like to hear your thoughts on a psychedelic related question. Actually, the topic I’d like to address is broader and psychedelics are only a subtopic albeit a very important one. On a larger level, I’d like to discuss the role of (Self-)Relfection (getting to know oneself, being aware of one’s/society's biases, challenging fixed assumptions, accepting one’s feelings, having the ability to cry, not trying to numb oneself, dealing with childhood issues, healing trauma and, eventually, hopefully increasing one’s self-worth) in our Modern Western Culture. I know, all the things I listed cover a very wide range of issues but I hope you know what I mean.
How I started thinking about these things?
I’m in my late 20ies. I am well educated, have a university degree and (had) a well-paid job (right now unemployed looking for a new job). I pay my taxes and contribute to social security. All in all, I’m a normal citizen. I fulfil my obligations as a citizen and lead a pretty normal life.
For many years now, I’ve been on a path of self-reflection including all the aspects listed above. I was forced on to that path due to medium-heavy depression. I’m feeling better now. I go to a psychotherapist which leads to good things. Mainly, my self-worth / self-acceptance got much better compared to years ago and I am very grateful for that. Also, it’s very beneficial to have some hours during the week designated to my mental well-being.
Another thing which helped me on my path of recovery from depression was a Psilocybin Trip (medium-large dose) in the Netherlands in 2018. It added a huge puzzle piece in understanding myself and, especially, my childhood better. I had major insights regarding various childhood issues. It was a very impactful and profound day. I am still speechless and in awe. I let my defences down and was able to cry, to connect and to be myself as I was in my childhood and accept myself.
This trip happened more than a year ago. Afterwards, I felt an increase in self-worth which was just incredible. It’s still there :-)
My reflections on Modern Life
Since then, many things happened which affected me: mainly Coronavirus and my unemployment (I’ve been unemployed for more than 6 months now). Now, there is me and there is society and with every passing day I see more things which are wrong with our modern society. The feeling got more pronounced about 2 months ago when I started looking for a new job. I don’t think it’s an effect of the Psilocybin Trip considering the Trip happened more than a year ago and the contents where rather personal than me having insights regarding the state of our modern life. The insights regarding our western society and our modern life mainly came in the wake of my searching for a new job in the business / management world and during my psychotherapy.
Now, what’s my problem with our modern life? First, let me say that I am aware that many of the problems I have come from a deep disappointment in life because many things didn’t turn out the way I intended them to 10 years ago in my early adulthood. Anyway, that being said:
-
More (self-)reflection, more trouble accepting society?
Now comes the crucial point: I feel like the more (self-)reflection I gain, the more trouble I have accepting the state of our modern society and all those developments in the various areas mentioned above. By “more (self-)reflection” I especially mean: getting to know oneself, being aware of one’s/society's biases (!!!), challenging fixed assumptions (!!!), being aware of the fact that most structures in our lives are not real and just held together by our belief in them.
Possible solutions
Main Question
Basically, how can I be part of our modern society when I see "the truth" and have a lot of (self-)reflection on various issues in life?
Seeing more truth and gaining more (self-)reflection are the logical results of psychotherapy and using psychedelics. Having committed myself to psychotherapy and psychedelics, I was rewarded with trauma being healed and a greater self-acceptance. But that whole society thing really bugs me.
I know I have benefited from psychotherapy and psychedelics and I know many others have. How can I be a happier and more content part of our modern society when I see so much that is wrong with it?
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I am aware of the irony of me wanting to discuss that with a bunch of strangers worldwide on the internet and simultaneously badmouthing internet and social media as one of the evils of the 21st century ;-)
submitted by PeterTim1436043 to Psychedelics [link] [comments]


2020.09.15 02:31 iambrian81 The Top 1% of Americans Have Taken $50 Trillion From the Bottom 90%—And That's Made the U.S. Less Secure

"
Like many of the virus’s hardest hit victims, the United States went into the COVID-19 pandemic wracked by preexisting conditions. A fraying public health infrastructure, inadequate medical supplies, an employer-based health insurance system perversely unsuited to the moment—these and other afflictions are surely contributing to the death toll. But in addressing the causes and consequences of this pandemic—and its cruelly uneven impact—the elephant in the room is extreme income inequality.
How big is this elephant? A staggering $50 trillion. That is how much the upward redistribution of income has cost American workers over the past several decades.
This is not some back-of-the-napkin approximation. According to a groundbreaking new working paper by Carter C. Price and Kathryn Edwards of the RAND Corporation, had the more equitable income distributions of the three decades following World War II (1945 through 1974) merely held steady, the aggregate annual income of Americans earning below the 90th percentile would have been $2.5 trillion higher in the year 2018 alone. That is an amount equal to nearly 12 percent of GDP—enough to more than double median income—enough to pay every single working American in the bottom nine deciles an additional $1,144 a month. Every month. Every single year.
Price and Edwards calculate that the cumulative tab for our four-decade-long experiment in radical inequality had grown to over $47 trillion from 1975 through 2018. At a recent pace of about $2.5 trillion a year, that number we estimate crossed the $50 trillion mark by early 2020. That’s $50 trillion that would have gone into the paychecks of working Americans had inequality held constant—$50 trillion that would have built a far larger and more prosperous economy—$50 trillion that would have enabled the vast majority of Americans to enter this pandemic far more healthy, resilient, and financially secure.
As the RAND report [whose research was funded by the Fair Work Center which co-author David Rolf is a board member of] demonstrates, a rising tide most definitely did not lift all boats. It didn’t even lift most of them, as nearly all of the benefits of growth these past 45 years were captured by those at the very top. And as the American economy grows radically unequal it is holding back economic growth itself.
📷People participate in a "March on Billionaires" event on July 17 in New York City. The march called on Governor Andrew Cuomo to pass a tax on billionaires and to fund workers excluded from unemployment and federal aid programs Spencer Platt—Getty Images
Even inequality is meted out unequally. Low-wage workers and their families, disproportionately people of color, suffer from far higher rates of asthma, hypertension, diabetes, and other COVID-19 comorbidities; yet they are also far less likely to have health insurance, and far more likely to work in “essential” industries with the highest rates of coronavirus exposure and transmission. It is no surprise then, according to the CDC, that COVID-19 inflicts “a disproportionate burden of illness and death among racial and ethnic minority groups.” But imagine how much safer, healthier, and empowered all American workers might be if that $50 trillion had been paid out in wages instead of being funneled into corporate profits and the offshore accounts of the super-rich. Imagine how much richer and more resilient the American people would be. Imagine how many more lives would have been saved had our people been more resilient.
It is easy to see how such a deadly virus, and the draconian measures required to contain it, might spark an economic depression. But look straight into the eyes of the elephant in the room, and it is impossible to deny the many ways in which our extreme inequality—an exceptionally American affliction—has made the virus more deadly and its economic consequences more dire than in any other advanced nation. Why is our death toll so high and our unemployment rate so staggeringly off the charts? Why was our nation so unprepared, and our economy so fragile? Why have we lacked the stamina and the will to contain the virus like most other advanced nations? The reason is staring us in the face: a stampede of rising inequality that has been trampling the lives and livelihoods of the vast majority of Americans, year after year after year.
Of course, America’s chronic case of extreme inequality is old news. Many other studies have documented this trend, chronicled its impact, and analyzed its causes. But where others have painted the picture in terms of aggregate shares of GDP, productivity growth, or other cold, hard statistics, the RAND report brings the inequality price tag directly home by denominating it in dollars—not just the aggregate $50 trillion figure, but in granular demographic detail. For example, are you a typical Black man earning $35,000 a year? You are being paid at least $26,000 a year less than you would have had income distributions held constant. Are you a college-educated, prime-aged, full-time worker earning $72,000? Depending on the inflation index used (PCE or CPI, respectively), rising inequality is costing you between $48,000 and $63,000 a year. But whatever your race, gender, educational attainment, urbanicity, or income, the data show, if you earn below the 90th percentile, the relentlessly upward redistribution of income since 1975 is coming out of your pocket.
📷People line up outside Kentucky Career Center to find assistance with their unemployment claims in Frankfort, Kentucky, U.S. June 18 Bryan Woolston—REUTERS
As Price and Edwards explain, from 1947 through 1974, real incomes grew close to the rate of per capita economic growth across all income levels. That means that for three decades, those at the bottom and middle of the distribution saw their incomes grow at about the same rate as those at the top. This was the era in which America built the world’s largest and most prosperous middle class, an era in which inequality between income groups steadily shrank (even as shocking inequalities between the sexes and races largely remained). But around 1975, this extraordinary era of broadly shared prosperity came to an end. Since then, the wealthiest Americans, particularly those in the top 1 percent and 0.1 percent, have managed to capture an ever-larger share of our nation’s economic growth—in fact, almost all of it—their real incomes skyrocketing as the vast majority of Americans saw little if any gains.
What if American prosperity had continued to be broadly shared—how much more would a typical worker be earning today? Once the data are compiled, answering these questions is fairly straightforward. Price and Edwards look at real taxable income from 1975 to 2018. They then compare actual income distributions in 2018 to a counterfactual that assumes incomes had continued to keep pace with growth in per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—a 118% increase over the 1975 income numbers. Whether measuring inflation using the more conservative Personal Consumption Expenditures Price Index (PCE) or the more commonly cited Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers (CPI-U-RS), the results are striking.
📷Data Source: RAND; Graphics: Mary Traverse for Civic Ventures
At every income level up to the 90th percentile, wage earners are now being paid a fraction of what they would have had inequality held constant. For example, at the median individual income of $36,000, workers are being shortchanged by $21,000 a year—$28,000 when using the CPI—an amount equivalent to an additional $10.10 to $13.50 an hour. But according to Price and Edwards, this actually understates the impact of rising inequality on low- and middle-income workers, because much of the gains at the bottom of the distribution were largely “driven by an increase in hours not an increase in wages.” To adjust for this, along with changing patterns of workforce participation, the researchers repeat their analysis for full-year, full-time, prime-aged workers (age 25 to 54). These results are even more stark: “Unlike the growth patterns in the 1950s and 60s,” write Price and Edwards, “the majority of full-time workers did not share in the economic growth of the last forty years.”
📷Data Source: RAND; Graphics: Mary Traverse for Civic Ventures
On average, extreme inequality is costing the median income full-time worker about $42,000 a year. Adjusted for inflation using the CPI, the numbers are even worse: half of all full-time workers (those at or below the median income of $50,000 a year) now earn less than half what they would have had incomes across the distribution continued to keep pace with economic growth. And that’s per worker, not per household. At both the 25th and 50th percentiles, households comprised of a married couple with one full-time worker earned thousands of dollars less in 2018 dollars than a comparable household in 1975—and $50,000 and $66,000 less respectively than if inequality had held constant—a predicament compounded by the rising costs of maintaining a dignified middle-class life. According to Oren Cass, executive director of the conservative think tank American Compass, the median male worker needed 30 weeks of income in 1985 to pay for housing, healthcare, transportation, and education for his family. By 2018, that “Cost of Thriving Index” had increased to 53 weeks (more weeks than in an actual year). But the counterfactual reveals an even starker picture: In 2018, the combined income of married households with two full-time workers was barely more than what the income of a single-earner household would have earned had inequality held constant. Two-income families are now working twice the hours to maintain a shrinking share of the pie, while struggling to pay housing, healthcare, education, childcare, and transportations costs that have grown at two to three times the rate of inflation.
This dramatic redistribution of income from the majority of workers to those at the very top is so complete that even at the 95th percentile, most workers are still earning less than they would have had inequality held constant. It is only at the 99th percentile that we see incomes growing faster than economic growth: at 171 percent of the rate of per capita GDP. But even this understates the disparity. “The average income growth for the top one percent was substantially higher,” write Price and Edwards, “at more than 300 percent of the real per capita GDP rate.” The higher your income, the larger your percentage gains. As a result, the top 1 percent’s share of total taxable income has more than doubled, from 9 percent in 1975, to 22 percent in 2018, while the bottom 90 percent have seen their income share fall, from 67 percent to 50 percent. This represents a direct transfer of income—and over time, wealth—from the vast majority of working Americans to a handful at the very top.
📷Data Source: RAND; Graphics: Mary Traverse for Civic Ventures
But given the changing demographic composition of the U.S. workforce, these topline numbers can only tell part of the story. The U.S. workforce is now better educated and more urban than it was in 1975. It is also far less white and male—with white men falling from over 60 percent of the prime-aged workforce in 1974 to less than 45 percent by 2018. These changes are important, because while there was far more equality between the income distributions in 1975, there was also more inequality within them—notably in regard to gender and race.
For example, in 1975, the median income of white women was only 31 percent of that of white men; by 2018 white women were earning 68 percent as much. Likewise, the median income of Black men as a share of their white counterparts’ earnings rose from 74 percent in 1975, to 80 percent in 2018. Clearly, income disparities between races, and especially between men and women, have narrowed since 1975, and that is a good thing. But unfortunately, much of the narrowing we see is more an artifact of four decades of flat or declining wages for low- and middle-income white men than it is of substantial gains for women and nonwhites.
📷Data Source: RAND; Graphics: Mary Traverse for Civic Ventures
Much has been made about white male grievance in the age of Trump, and given their falling or stagnant real incomes, one can understand why some white men might feel aggrieved. White, non-urban, non-college educated men have the slowest wage growth in every demographic category. But to blame their woes on competition from women or minorities would be to completely miss the target. In fact, white men still earn more than white women at all income distributions, and substantially more than most non-white men and women. Only Asian-American men earn higher. Yet there is no moral or practical justification for the persistence of any income disparity based on race or gender.
The counterfactuals in the table above appear vastly unequal because they extrapolate from the indefensible 1975-levels of race and gender inequality; they assume that inequality remained constant both between income distributions and within them—that women and nonwhites had not narrowed the income gap with white men. But surely, this cannot be our goal. In an economy freed from race and gender bias, and that shares the fruits of growth broadly across all income distributions, the most appropriate counterfactual for all the groups in this table would be the aggregate counterfactual for “All Groups”: a median income of $57,000 a year for all adults with positive earnings ($92,000 for full-time prime-age workers). That would be the income for all workers at the 50th percentile, regardless of race or gender, had race and gender inequality within distributions been eliminated, and inequality between distributions not grown. By this measure we can see that in real dollars, women and nonwhites have actually lost more income to rising inequality than white men, because starting from their disadvantaged positions in 1975, they had far more to potentially gain. Per capita GDP grew by 118 percent over the following four decades, so there was plenty of new income to spread around. That the majority of white men have benefited from almost none of this growth isn’t because they have lost income to women or minorities; it’s because they’ve lost it to their largely white male counterparts in the top 1 percent who have captured nearly all of the income growth for themselves. According to economist Thomas Piketty, men accounted for 85 percent of the top income centile in the mid-2010s—and while he doesn’t specify, these men are overwhelmingly white.
Thus, by far the single largest driver of rising inequality these past forty years has been the dramatic rise in inequality between white men.
📷People participate in a "March on Billionaires" event on July 17 in New York City Spencer Platt—Getty Images.
The data on income distribution by educational attainment is equally revealing, in that it calls the lie on the notion of a “skills gap”—a dominant narrative that has argued that rising inequality is largely a consequence of a majority of American workers failing to acquire the higher skills necessary to compete in our modern global economy. If workers were better educated, this narrative argues, they would earn more money. Problem solved.
Indeed, at every income distribution, the education premium has increased since 1975, with the income of college graduates rising faster than their less educated counterparts. But this growing gap is more a consequence of falling incomes for workers without a college degree than it is of rising real incomes for most workers with one—for not only have workers without a degree secured none of the gains from four decades of economic growth, below the 50th percentile they’ve actually seen their real incomes decline. College educated workers are doing better. The median real income for full-time workers with a four-year degree has grown from $55,000 a year in 1975 to $72,000 in 2018. But that still falls far short of the $120,000 they’d be earning had incomes grown with per capita GDP. Even at the 90th percentile, a college educated full-time worker making $191,000 a year is earning less than 78 percent what they would have had inequality held constant.
The reality is that American workers have never been more highly educated. In 1975, only 67 percent of the adult US workforce had a high school education or better, while just 15 percent had earned a four-year college degree. By 2018, 91 percent of adult workers had completed high school, while the percentage of college graduates in the workforce had more than doubled to 34 percent. In raw numbers, the population of adult workers with a high school education or less has fallen since 1975, while the number of workers with a four-year degree has more than quadrupled.
📷Data Source: RAND; Graphics: Mary Traverse for Civic Ventures
It is impossible to argue that a “skills gap” is responsible for rising income inequality when the rate of educational attainment is rising faster than the rate of growth in productivity or per capita GDP. Yes, workers with college degrees are doing better than those without; the economy we’ve built over the past 45 years has been more unequal to some than to others. But below the 90th percentile, even college graduates are falling victim to a decades-long trend of radical inequality that is robbing them of most of the benefits of economic growth.
The iron rule of market economies is that we all do better when we all do better: when workers have more money, businesses have more customers, and hire more workers. Seventy percent of our economy is dependent on consumer spending; the faster and broader real incomes grow, the stronger the demand for the products and services American businesses produce. This is the virtuous cycle through which workers and businesses prospered together in the decades immediately following World War II. But as wages stagnated after 1975, so too did consumer demand; and as demand slowed, so did the economy. A 2014 report from the OECD estimated that rising income inequality knocked as much 9 points off U.S. GDP growth over the previous two decades—a deficit that has surely grown over the past six years as inequality continued to climb. That’s about $2 trillion worth of GDP that’s being frittered away, year after year, through policy choices that intentionally constrain the earning power of American workers.
COVID-19 may have triggered our current crisis, but it wasn’t its only cause. For even had our political leaders done everything right in the moment, our response to the pandemic would still have been mired in the footprint of extreme inequality: a $50 trillion upward redistribution of wealth and income—$297,000 per household—that has left our families, our economy, and our democracy far less capable of fighting this virus than in other advanced nations. This is the America that stumbled into the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic catastrophe it unleashed: An America with an economy $2 trillion smaller and a workforce $2.5 trillion a year poorer than they otherwise would be had inequality held constant since 1975. This is an America in which 47 percent of renters are cost burdened, in which 40 percent of households can’t cover a $400 emergency expense, in which half of Americans over age 55 have no retirement savings at all. This is an America in which 28 million have no health insurance, and in which 44 million underinsured Americans can’t afford the deductibles or copays to use the insurance they have. This is an America that recklessly rushed to reopen its economy in the midst of a deadly pandemic because businesses were too fragile to survive an extended closure and workers too powerless and impoverished to defy the call back to work.
📷Rectangles designed to help prevent the spread of the coronavirus by encouraging social distancing line a city-sanctioned homeless encampment at San Francisco's Civic Center on May 21 Noah Berger—AP
There are some who blame the current plight of working Americans on structural changes in the underlying economy—on automation, and especially on globalization. According to this popular narrative, the lower wages of the past 40 years were the unfortunate but necessary price of keeping American businesses competitive in an increasingly cutthroat global market. But in fact, the $50 trillion transfer of wealth the RAND report documents has occurred entirely within the American economy, not between it and its trading partners. No, this upward redistribution of income, wealth, and power wasn’t inevitable; it was a choice—a direct result of the trickle-down policies we chose to implement since 1975.
We chose to cut taxes on billionaires and to deregulate the financial industry. We chose to allow CEOs to manipulate share prices through stock buybacks, and to lavishly reward themselves with the proceeds. We chose to permit giant corporations, through mergers and acquisitions, to accumulate the vast monopoly power necessary to dictate both prices charged and wages paid. We chose to erode the minimum wage and the overtime threshold and the bargaining power of labor. For four decades, we chose to elect political leaders who put the material interests of the rich and powerful above those of the American people.
Other nations are suffering less from COVID-19 because they made better choices, and the good news is that America can, too. Economics is a choice. We could choose to raise the federal minimum wage to $15 or $20 an hour and peg it to productivity growth like in the decades before 1975. We could choose to revalue work so that the majority of Americans once again earn time-and-a-half pay for every hour worked over 40 hours a week. We could choose to provide affordable high-quality healthcare, childcare, and education to all Americans, while modernizing our social insurance and retirement systems so that contract and gig workers aren’t left out and left behind. We could choose to make it easier for workers to organize, and to defend the rights and interests of those who can’t. We could choose to build a more equitable, resilient, and prosperous America—an America that grows its economy by intentionally including every American in it. But given our nation’s radical redistribution of wealth and power these past 40 years, it won’t be easy.
📷People wait on a long line to receive a food bank donation at the Barclays Center on May 15 in Brooklyn. The sports arena saw lines wrap around the block as New Yorkers struggle with unemployment and other financial stresses brought on by the COVID-19 outbreak Stephanie Keith—Getty Images.
What American workers need are multiple simultaneous experiments in rebuilding worker power, from tweaking existing labor laws to sectoral bargaining to the creation of whole new trade associations and broad-based not-for-profit organizations. For example, imagine an AARP for all working Americans, relentlessly dedicated to both raising wages and reducing the cost of thriving—a mass membership organization so large and so powerful that our political leaders won’t dare to look the other way. Only then, by matching power with power, can we clear a path to enacting the laws and policies necessary to ensure that that trickle-down economics never threatens our health, safety, and welfare again.
There is little evidence that the current administration has any interest in dealing with this crisis. Our hope is that a Biden administration would be historically bold. But make no mistake that both our political and economic systems will collapse absent solutions that scale to the enormous size of the problem. The central goal our nation’s economic policy must be nothing less than the doubling of median income. We must dramatically narrow inequality between distributions while eliminating racial and gender inequalities within them. This is the standard to which we should hold leaders from both parties. To advocate for anything less would be cowardly or dishonest or both."

https://time.com/5888024/50-trillion-income-inequality-america/
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2020.09.11 22:08 F1-Editorial 2020 Tuscan GP Free Practice 1 and 2 Debrief - r/Formula1 Editorial Team

2020 Tuscan GP Free Practice 1 and 2 Debrief

Words by UnmeshDatta26, showstopperNL, and Death_Pig
Discussion Threads:

The Worst Kept Secret Of The Year Is Confirmed

Vettel to Aston Martin, Perez goes where?

Since Ferrari announced that they would be signing Carlos Sainz for the 2021 season to partner with Charles Leclerc, the future of Sebastian Vettel has been in limbo, with murmurs that he was even considering retirement. The biggest rumor all season was that he would join soon-to-be-renamed Racing Point, spearheading the Aston Martin rebrand.
The rumors are now confirmed. Following Sergio Perez announcement that he would leave the team after 7 years of service, Vettel is now officially signed with Racing Point/Aston Martin and while the contract’s length has not yet confirmed, reports indicated that he will take a pay cut, supposedly earning a third his current salary at Ferrari. According to Otmar Szafnauer, Racing Point’s CEO and Team Principal, it certainly seems that Vettel will be given a steady hand and a steady team for him to settle in and fight.
We would be remiss if we did not mention Sergio Perez’ contributions to Racing Point’s current standing. When the Force India team was in danger of collapsing, Perez’s actions bought it enough time to finalise a sale to the group headed by Lawrence Stroll, saving the team (along with many jobs). The outpouring of support and gratitude for his efforts by team personnel are certainly enhanced by the knowledge that the team would likely not be in Formula 1 without Perez.
Although many people say there is no place for sentimentality in the cut-throat business of F1, the humane connections formed while battling the other drivers and teams run deep and it is clear that Sergio Perez was a beloved part of the team and will be missed by many.

Change of Scenery at Williams

After Claire and Sir Frank left Williams last weekend in an emotional goodbye from the paddock at Monza and CEO Mike O’Driscoll announced he would be leaving the team, the questions started swirling around for who would come in to replace them.
For now, Simon Roberts has been promoted to Acting Team Principal and will lead Williams until the new owners can decide on the changes they want to implement. Roberts began his career in F1 in 2003, joining McLaren to be their Operations Director and General Manager, later moving to Force India in 2009 as their COO before a return to McLaren in 2010 as an Operations Director and a part of the Executive Team. He would become McLaren’s COO in 2017, a post he occupied until May, when he became Williams’ Managing Director.
We all hope he can steer the team through this difficult period towards a brighter future.

Quick bits

  • Ferrari celebrates their 1000th GP in F1 with a new special burgundy livery, the same color as their first-ever car that raced in Monaco in 1950. Their driver suits have also changed to the same color with a large 1000 logo on it, also present on the cars engine covers. Sebastian Vettel and Charles Leclerc are racing with special helmets to honor the occasion.
  • Haas and Racing Point have settled a two-year dispute over payment of F1’s prize money. Haas had originally argued that Stroll’s Racing Point should not receive their Column 1 prize money for two years, as they were a new entry, as Haas did when it entered the sport in 2016. As this was not the case, Racing Point receiving Column 1 prize money normally, Haas brought a case against it, saying that either Racing Point should not have been paid or Haas should have received the same payments for their first 2 years.
Haas had launched the protest against Racing Point at the end of the 2018 season in Abu Dhabi. Today, it was announced that the two teams had reached a settlement, details still very hard to come by.
In a press conference by Szafnauer and Haas Team Principal Guenther Steiner, Szafnauer said: “We’re pleased that it’s come to a conclusion and now the entire team can focus on what we’re here to do and entertain the fans, we’re happy it’s behind us”, which close the matter without providing any details.

Track and Tech Talk

Mugello is the first of several new tracks for Formula 1 in 2020, and this weekend will be the first time a Grand Prix will be held at the track, but not the first time Formula 1 cars have gone around it.
The track record was set by Rubens Barrichello in the F2004 and half the current drivers have taken part in races at Mugello (a list of which will appear as a comment to this Debrief), with 6 current drivers having also taken part in the 2012 Pirelli test at the track.
Set in the Tuscan Mountains, the surrounding area has some similarities to the Red Bull Ring, with Mugello being a very fast track, featuring blind corners due to the terrain’s undulation, with Turns 8 and 9 (Arrabbiata 1 and 2) probably being the most impressive part for Formula 1 cars, as they are expected to take the double right-hander flat out, subjecting the drivers to massive G forces.
According to Mercedes’ fact sheet, 66% of the lap time is spent at full throttle, and the lowest speed corners are somewhere near 120 kph, much faster than most other circuits on the calendar. The drivers can expect to take anywhere between 4 and 5 Gs of force at Turn 9. Valtteri Bottas was quoted after FP2 saying “this track is definitely one of the most physically demanding. We’ll only properly get to see the effects of that in the race distance, but even today, I could feel it and it’s going to be tough for everyone on Sunday”.
There is only one DRS zone on the start-finish straight, with the detection point being just before the final turn, with only 5 braking events in the whole circuit, despite there being 15 turns, 6 to the left and 9 to the right. This track is a true test of the power and grip of the modern era cars, with drivers expected to take some corners flat out, notably the aforementioned Arrabbiata corners.
Pirelli has brought the three hardest compounds (C1, C2, and C3) for this weekend. The asphalt at Mugello is famously abrasive, so Pirelli expects high degradation from the asphalt and from the loads the high-speed corners will impose on the tires. As the cars will run high downforce packages, the loads will increase, and we can expect a powerful DRS in the start/finish straight.
And for the first time this season, there will be fans in the grandstands, as Mugello will allow close to 3.000 fans to watch the race live, bringing a small dose of normalcy to a very strange 2020.

Free Practice 1

After weeks of anticipation, it was finally time for the cars to hit the track at Mugello. All teams went out to do their installation laps right away, using tires they would return to Pirelli midway through the session for analysis. Lando Norris tested his radio in the most Lando Norris way possible by singing. Happy Friday everyone!
A cautious session ensued, with Mercedes coming out on top, Bottas topping the first-ever official Formula 1 session at Mugello, Barrichello’s track record duly broken. The Finn was closely followed by Red Bull’s Max Verstappen, the Red Bull looking good this weekend, in contrast to their tough weekend at Monza. The nature of Mugello with fast sweeping corners should favor Red Bull’s aerodynamic dominant design, and we expect the team to take the fight to Mercedes.
A fairly big surprise on the FP1 time sheet is Charles Leclerc closing the session in P3. Time will tell if this was a single lap glory run, or a glimpse of actual pace this weekend, but things can only improve from last weekend.
As usual, 6-time world champion Lewis Hamilton was not far from the top, even if he “only” managed to clock the 4th fastest time, some 0.5 seconds back from his Mercedes teammate.
Last week’s winner Pierre Gasly impressed again, finishing 5th. Just like big brother Red Bull, AlphaTauri looked good around Mugello in FP1, with Gasly’s teammate Daniil Kvyat setting the 7th best time.
After a torrid weekend in Monza, as can be read in u/Death_Pig’s A Weekend Chez Renault piece, Esteban Ocon will be looking to bounce back at Mugello. The weekend certainly got off to a good start as he was 6th fastest in FP1, 0.3s quicker than his teammate Daniel Ricciardo, who finished in 10th.
Sandwiched by the Renaults were McLaren’s Norris in 8th and Red Bull’s Alexander Albon. While completing the most laps in the session (34), the second Red Bull had a slow start to the weekend, ending FP1 a full second behind Verstappen.
Further down the leaderboard, the biggest surprise is Racing Point down in 18th and 19th. The two pink cars appeared out of sync with the rest of the teams in doing race simulations, even causing some slight frustration between Stroll and Verstappen.
Other than Carlos Sainz being down in P15 for McLaren, the back of the grid had the usual suspects, with Giovinazzi P14, Russell P16, Magnussen P17, and Latifi P20.
The only incident of note in the morning session was Nicholas Latifi spinning into the gravel trap, but able to get going again.
FP1 did not answer many questions, but highlighted that the tires will be a big topic this weekend. The track does indeed punish the rubber quite severely and the teams will have their work cut out for them making them last.
With the teams having only three practice sessions to acquire all their tire usage data, this could throw a wrench in whatever plans the teams have made so far.

Free Practice 2

A fairly standard FP1 was followed up by an incident packed FP2, with Albon starting the session going back to the future.
The first to kick the excitement off was Leclerc, who spun into the gravel and was lucky not to beach his car, in a similar incident to Latifi’s in FP1.
After starting the morning on a high note, Lando Norris will have few reasons to sing after FP2. The young Brit put a wheel on the gravel coming out of Turn 10 and was lucky to only lose a front wing, and as the McLaren could not return to the pits, his session ended.
The red flag came out and the timing of it was awkward, as teams were preparing and/or starting their race simulations and had to abort their plans.
After the damaged McLaren was out of the way, the session restarted and the teams started their qualifying simulations, setting their best laps of the session. Bottas led the way again, going into the 1:16s for the first time, the current lap record now 1:16.969s. Hamilton was 0.2s behind and Verstappen almost matching the #44 Black Arrow’s time, only 0.039s behind.
Just as teams were settling into race simulations again, the 2nd big incident of the session occurred. Kimi Räikkönen and Sergio Perez collided in a very weird accident coming out of the pit exit into Turn 1. You don’t typically see collisions like this in free practice, but as the Racing Point came out of the pits, Perez could not see the Alfa Romeo, and as Räikkönen turned into the first corner, he clipped the front wing of pink car, spinning into the gravel, while Perez had to return to the pits for repairs (and will have a 1 place grid penalty for it). As the clash left a scattering of debris on track, the red flag came out again, ending many long runs.
The second session was less kind to Ferrari, with Leclerc P10 and Vettel P12 after a perfectly executed pirouette midway through the session. Racing Point fared better, but P7 (Perez) and 11 (Stroll) is not where the team wants to be, so it remains to be seen if they can further improve on Saturday. As Mugello will probably not offer many overtaking opportunities, a poor qualifying can hinder a team’s fortunes on Sunday.
Haas looks particularly in danger, as Grosjean could only complete 5 laps and Kevin Magnussen, while notching 32 laps was unable to beat Williams' Latifi, the teammates occupying P19 and 20, respectively. Kvyat, who closed the session in P15, must also improve, especially as his race winning teammate was P8 in the session.
With 12 minutes to go the mess was cleared, and cars took to the track again, before Vettel’s Ferrari decided to end their session earlier. The car turned itself off and ended the day’s running.

Conclusions after FP2:

Due to the long runs getting cut short, it is hard to ascertain where teams stand in terms of pace, but Red Bull does appear to be more competitive this weekend. Verstappen’s tire management could be an important part of the race, but it is yet unclear where Mercedes stands. This is not to suggest that they will not be the strongest team on Sunday, as betting against the team in 2020 seems foolish, but we can hope that Red Bull will challenge, especially if the temperature should rise.
The midfield battle still is as close as ever. With the new power mode directives in place, this could be another circuit where a midfield team, like McLaren, could challenge the top teams by pushing in a higher engine mode than the rest. On a track like Mugello, every ounce of power is crucial to overall lap times and the restricted overtaking opportunities could help a slightly slower car hold its position. After an all-midfield podium and an AlphaTauri win last weekend, we would certainly not complain if Sunday brought some surprises.
submitted by F1-Editorial to formula1 [link] [comments]


2020.09.11 15:10 michaeldave25 Weekly Discussions Post: September 11th -September 17th 2020

Weekly Discussions Post: September 11th -September 17th 2020

Weekly Discussions Post: September 4th -September 10th 2020
All price discussion, market talk, memes, other cryptos exchanges in the daily/weekly discussion post only please.
Getting Started
To learn more please visit Elastos Academy and ElastosDeveloper
Also watch the Short Explainer Video, and "Elastos: The Modern Internet "
Elastos Website
Elastos In A Nutshell Peer to Peer Carrier Network Part 1
Elastos In A Nutshell Series: Merged Mining part 1
Elastos In A Nutshell Series: Merged Mining part 2
Elastos and Peer to Peer Carrier Network Part 1
Elastos and Peer to Peer Carrier Network Part 2
*New Elastos In A Nutshell: Carrier Network Part 3
Spotlight Series 1: Elastos Runtime aka Trinity aka Elastos Browser
Spotlight Series 2: Elastos Sidechains and Scalability
Spotlight Series 3: Elastos Hybrid Consensus and Finality of Blocks
* New! Spotlight Series 4: Elastos DID
___________________________________________________________________________________
Recent News
Carrier Team lead Zhilong Tang presents Elastos' Carrier network: the server-less, decentralized, end-to-end communication platform for the Modern Internet.
Unlikely Competitor: Can Elastos Network Compete with Ethereum for Enterprise Blockchain Adoption?
ELA Integration with Ledger Complete with Release of Community-built Light Wallet
Next in our Elastos video series, Feeds: the first blockchain based, decentralized social media platform.
Elastos Financial Report – First Half 2020
Listen in to Trinity Team Lead Benjamin Piette as he presents elastOS
Watch BD Lead Clarence Liu present our ETH Sidehcain: Scalable, Secure, and the home of DeFi
3 Reasons Why Blockchain Security Matters to Enterprises
Elastos Bi-Weekly Update – 28 August 2020
Second Video Update: Marketing, DeFi, B2B, and exchange listings.
Feeds v1.1.0 Capsule Released
Elastos 3-Year Anniversary Update - Tuum Tech
Five Defining Features to Build the New Generation Internet
Elastos 3-Year Anniversary AMA
Decentralized Price Reference Data Chainlink
Elastos is taking part in DecentralHacks
Elastos Bi-Weekly Update – 14 August 2020
Exploring elastOS: August 2020 Status and Future Outlook
GreenPass Presented in IEEE/ICCC 2020
The CR Regions and vulcanlink teams are actively working on the chainlink integration with the Elastos ETH Sidechain
Elastos Foundation joins elite Digital Identity Industry Working Group
Fighting the epidemic together: bithelp public welfare platform and GreenPass reached a strategic cooperation
Elaphant Team Reaches Cooperation Agreement with StorSwift, One of Filecoin’s Top Miner
The 80% burn of the CR ELA Fund is complete
Elastos Ethereum Sidechain to Offer a Cross-Chain Stablecoin Powered by Chainlink Oracles
CR Token Burn Announcement
Want to create your own .ela domain in just 3 minutes?
Tuum Technologies' Vouch dApp on elastOS now enables verification for W3C compliant DIDs. Verify your DID today.
Onsale - the Elastos NFT (Non-Fungible Token) Marketplace created by our very own Elastos DMA Team is now available for download in the Google Play Store and in web version.
The 80% CR Token Burn has Passed
We are pleased to announce the launch of the new Elastos.Info website!
CryptoName is now live on Elastos ETH Sidechain!
Song Sjun from the Elaphant Team shares his opinion on the CR Council and how to handle the ELA Fund
CR Regions has launched the CR Exchange Fund
Congratulations to the First Winner of the CR Council Election!
elastOS: New Strategic Direction
The CR ETH Task Force has joined the Ren Alliance
Elastos Ecosystem Terminology: A Beginner’s Guide
The GreenPass App by Elastos DMA is designed for health and public safety during COVIDー19
Two new dApps have been released on elastOS
Looking for updates on all of Elastos’ various projects? Then check out our regularly updated Modules Status on the Elastos Developer portal
Exploring elastOS: The DID dApp
The Problems being Encountered by Blockchain Ecosystems, and How Elastos has Already Solved Them
Exploring elastOS: What is elastOS?
Elastos DID Sidechain Upgrade and Java SDK Release
Elastos Ethereum Sidechain Live For Public Use
The Blockchain Ledger is Not a True Account Book
Elastos: Behind the Blockchain
Elastos Smartweb is a Computer
Cyber Republic Signs MoU with Dacsee To Utilize Elastos’ Ethereum Sidechain
ETH and NEO Sidechains to Open for Whitelisted Partners and Developers
The Elastos Foundation Joins W3C and DIF
Updated Main Net Development Roadmap
Supernode Setup Automation Script
Elastos Team Structure
___________________________________________________________________________________
Green Lights And Guides
Elastos Developer Workshop #2: How to set up a Supernode
Elastos Developer Workshop #1: Running Private Net
Cyber Republic Constitution Open For Community Feedback
Set Up Your Own Carrier Node on MAC
Set Up Your Own Carrier Node on PC (Credit Chinicci)
Track The Node Count Of The Elastos Decentralized Carrier Network(credit Jimmy Lipham)
Elastos is hiring community managers, partnership managers, marketers, evangelists, technical writers, DApp developers, Engineers
___________________________________________________________________________________
Yellow Lights
Ledger Nano App is complete and waiting for approval thanks to u/coranos2
Red Lights
Useful Links
Elastos Medium link
ELA NEWS Site
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___________________________________________________________________________________
Only Buy ELA from these exchanges
Buy ELA on Huobi
Buy ELA on HBUS
Buy ELA on Bcex
Buy ELA on Coinegg
Buy ELA on Kucoin
Buy ELA on CoinSpot
Buy ELA on GAEX
Buy ELA on BTCTrade
Buy ELA on CoolCoin
Buy ELA on LBank
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Buy ELA on BitPlace
___________________________________________________________________________________
Rules
Please Read The Elastos Subreddit Rules
Matters And Opinions Pertaining To The ELA Token Price and Exchanges Are To Be Confined To The Daily Discussion Thread
___________________________________________________________________________________
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Cyber Republic Facebook GroupWeekly Discussions Post: May 29th -June 4th 2020
All price discussion, market talk, memes, other cryptos exchanges in the daily/weekly discussion post only please.
Getting Started
To learn more please visit Elastos Academy and ElastosDeveloper
Also watch the Short Explainer Video, and "Elastos: The Modern Internet "
Elastos Website
Elastos In A Nutshell Peer to Peer Carrier Network Part 1
Elastos In A Nutshell Series: Merged Mining part 1
Elastos In A Nutshell Series: Merged Mining part 2
Elastos and Peer to Peer Carrier Network Part 1
Elastos and Peer to Peer Carrier Network Part 2
*New Elastos In A Nutshell: Carrier Network Part 3
Spotlight Series 1: Elastos Runtime aka Trinity aka Elastos Browser
Spotlight Series 2: Elastos Sidechains and Scalability
Spotlight Series 3: Elastos Hybrid Consensus and Finality of Blocks
* New! Spotlight Series 4: Elastos DID
___________________________________________________________________________________
Recent News
ELA Node v.0.5.0 and CRC Supernode Announcement
CR Council Election and ELA Node Upgrade Announcement
elastOS Challenges for NY Blockchain Week Hackathon
Elastos is sponsoring the NY Blockchain Week Hackathon hosted by gitcoin
The CR ETH Task Force has joined the Ren Alliance
Elastos Ecosystem Terminology: A Beginner’s Guide
The GreenPass App by Elastos DMA is designed for health and public safety during COVIDー19
Two new dApps have been released on elastOS
Looking for updates on all of Elastos’ various projects? Then check out our regularly updated Modules Status on the Elastos Developer portal
Exploring elastOS: What’s Ahead
CRC Schedule Update
End of Year Report 2019
Elastos Financial Report – July-December 2019
Exploring elastOS: The DID dApp
The Problems being Encountered by Blockchain Ecosystems, and How Elastos has Already Solved Them
Exploring elastOS: What is elastOS?
Feng Han at the Geneva Blockchain Congress
elastOS: The Gateway to the Smartweb, Released For Android Devices
Elastos DID Sidechain Upgrade and Java SDK Release
CR Council Election Rules
Cyber Republic Interim Council Update
Elastos Ethereum Sidechain Live For Public Use
The Blockchain Ledger is Not a True Account Book
Elastos: Behind the Blockchain
Elastos Smartweb is a Computer
Cyber Republic Signs MoU with Dacsee To Utilize Elastos’ Ethereum Sidechain
ETH and NEO Sidechains to Open for Whitelisted Partners and Developers
The Elastos Foundation Joins W3C and DIF
Updated Main Net Development Roadmap
Supernode Setup Automation Script
Elastos Team Structure
___________________________________________________________________________________
Green Lights And Guides
Elastos Developer Workshop #2: How to set up a Supernode
Elastos Developer Workshop #1: Running Private Net
Cyber Republic Constitution Open For Community Feedback
Set Up Your Own Carrier Node on MAC
Set Up Your Own Carrier Node on PC (Credit Chinicci)
Track The Node Count Of The Elastos Decentralized Carrier Network(credit Jimmy Lipham)
Elastos is hiring community managers, partnership managers, marketers, evangelists, technical writers, DApp developers, Engineers
___________________________________________________________________________________
Yellow Lights
Ledger Nano App is complete and waiting for approval thanks to u/coranos2
Red Lights
Useful Links
Elastos Medium link
ELA NEWS Site
Github
Cyber Republic
___________________________________________________________________________________
Only Buy ELA from these exchanges
Buy ELA on Huobi
Buy ELA on HBUS
Buy ELA on Bcex
Buy ELA on Coinegg
Buy ELA on Kucoin
Buy ELA on CoinSpot
Buy ELA on GAEX
Buy ELA on BTCTrade
Buy ELA on CoolCoin
Buy ELA on LBank
Buy ELA on BitZ
Buy ELA on BitPlace
___________________________________________________________________________________
Rules
Please Read The Elastos Subreddit Rules
Matters And Opinions Pertaining To The ELA Token Price and Exchanges Are To Be Confined To The Daily Discussion Thread
___________________________________________________________________________________
Other Channels To Follow
Elastos Official Website
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Cyber Republic Medium Link
Cyber Republic Blog
Cyber Republic Reddit
Cyber Republic Twitter
Cyber Republic LinkedIn
Cyber Republic Instagram
Cyber Republic Facebook Page
Cyber Republic Facebook Group
submitted by michaeldave25 to Elastos [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 10:09 smactworks Embracing Transformation with Oracle Cloud Applications

Change is the harbinger of new business opportunities. Cloud transformations are helping businesses differentiate themselves among competitors. In addition to gaining the competitive edge, cloud transformations also help businesses boost their operational efficiency and productivity. Cloud Vision 2020, a survey conducted by LogicMonitor, revealed that 83% of the enterprise workloads will be in the cloud by 2020. The key findings of the survey are illustrated below.
[Link to the image: https://blogs-images.forbes.com/louiscolumbus/files/2018/01/Cloud-Workloads.png]
The leading driving factor for greater public cloud engagement are digitally transforming enterprises (63%). More and more businesses are choosing Oracle Cloud applications to further distinguish and differentiate their products and services in the marketplace. Cloud applications are highly recommended for organizations looking to bring efficiency into their operations and improve their productivity.
Moving to the Cloud
The complete benefit of cloud transformation comes by approaching the transformation as a holistic strategy for digital transformation rather than one-off tactical decisions. Cloud transformation is more about your business than the technology. Oracle Cloud helps businesses derive the most from the cloud by driving change across people, process, and technology. Most successful organizations are of the opinion that cloud transformation is a strategic enabler to business growth.
Some statistics that reveal the widespread adoption of cloud technology are described as follows.
As per Forrester data, 52% of the North American Enterprise infrastructure decision-makers believe that public cloud adoption is a critical future business priority.
Forrester forecasts a 22% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in the public cloud market by 2020 to reach a whopping $236 billion.
Oracle cloud computing applications can be IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, or DaaS services. These services are used to build, deploy, integrate, and extend applications in the cloud. Once businesses decide to migrate to the cloud, the transition needs to be fast, efficient, and cause minimal disruption to existing setup. SMACT Works delivers transformation solutions that connect people, data, processes, and systems seamlessly. Our proven methodology and expertise in cloud migrations ensure maximum return on Oracle cloud investments.
The SMACT Works Advantage
SMACT Works is an Oracle Gold Cloud Standard Partner with extensive experience in the implementation and support of Oracle Cloud applications. With years of experience in supporting Oracle PeopleSoft and Oracle EBS applications, we are the preferred partner for mid-market and enterprise customers looking to transform their business by implementing Oracle Cloud Applications.
Our Oracle-based approach to cloud transformation and unparalleled technical expertise enables a seamless, smooth cloud migration. SMACT Works offers the following services:
SMACT Works provides a complete suite of latest modern cloud applications that enable enterprises to enhance their business performance and optimize their operational efficiency.
Enable your business to capture the limitless possibilities that cloud offers. Oracle Cloud applications from SMACT Works enable businesses to use cloud differently. Our cloud applications help businesses deliver amazing customer experiences and streamline their operations. SMACT Works provides strategic and tactical approaches to modernize legacy ERP systems by implementing or coexisting Oracle’s best-of-breed modern cloud applications. To know more about our oracle cloud applications or request a demo, reach out to us at [email protected].
submitted by smactworks to u/smactworks [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 09:34 smactworks Embracing Transformation with Oracle Cloud Applications

Change is the harbinger of new business opportunities. Cloud transformations are helping businesses differentiate themselves among competitors. In addition to gaining the competitive edge, cloud transformations also help businesses boost their operational efficiency and productivity. Cloud Vision 2020, a survey conducted by LogicMonitor, revealed that 83% of the enterprise workloads will be in the cloud by 2020. The key findings of the survey are illustrated below.
[Link to the image: https://blogs-images.forbes.com/louiscolumbus/files/2018/01/Cloud-Workloads.png]
The leading driving factor for greater public cloud engagement are digitally transforming enterprises (63%). More and more businesses are choosing Oracle Cloud applications to further distinguish and differentiate their products and services in the marketplace. Cloud applications are highly recommended for organizations looking to bring efficiency into their operations and improve their productivity.
Moving to the Cloud
The complete benefit of cloud transformation comes by approaching the transformation as a holistic strategy for digital transformation rather than one-off tactical decisions. Cloud transformation is more about your business than the technology. Oracle Cloud helps businesses derive the most from the cloud by driving change across people, process, and technology. Most successful organizations are of the opinion that cloud transformation is a strategic enabler to business growth.
Some statistics that reveal the widespread adoption of cloud technology are described as follows.
As per Forrester data, 52% of the North American Enterprise infrastructure decision-makers believe that public cloud adoption is a critical future business priority.
Forrester forecasts a 22% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in the public cloud market by 2020 to reach a whopping $236 billion.
Oracle cloud computing applications can be IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, or DaaS services. These services are used to build, deploy, integrate, and extend applications in the cloud. Once businesses decide to migrate to the cloud, the transition needs to be fast, efficient, and cause minimal disruption to existing setup. SMACT Works delivers transformation solutions that connect people, data, processes, and systems seamlessly. Our proven methodology and expertise in cloud migrations ensure maximum return on Oracle cloud investments.
The SMACT Works Advantage
SMACT Works is an Oracle Gold Cloud Standard Partner with extensive experience in the implementation and support of Oracle Cloud applications. With years of experience in supporting Oracle PeopleSoft and Oracle EBS applications, we are the preferred partner for mid-market and enterprise customers looking to transform their business by implementing Oracle Cloud Applications.
Our Oracle-based approach to cloud transformation and unparalleled technical expertise enables a seamless, smooth cloud migration. SMACT Works offers the following services:
SMACT Works provides a complete suite of latest modern cloud applications that enable enterprises to enhance their business performance and optimize their operational efficiency.
Enable your business to capture the limitless possibilities that cloud offers. Oracle Cloud applications from SMACT Works enable businesses to use cloud differently. Our cloud applications help businesses deliver amazing customer experiences and streamline their operations. SMACT Works provides strategic and tactical approaches to modernize legacy ERP systems by implementing or coexisting Oracle’s best-of-breed modern cloud applications. To know more about our oracle cloud applications or request a demo, reach out to us at [email protected].
submitted by smactworks to u/smactworks [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 09:32 smactworks Embracing Transformation with Oracle Cloud Applications

Embracing Transformation with Oracle Cloud Applications
Change is the harbinger of new business opportunities. Cloud transformations are helping businesses differentiate themselves among competitors. In addition to gaining the competitive edge, cloud transformations also help businesses boost their operational efficiency and productivity. Cloud Vision 2020, a survey conducted by LogicMonitor, revealed that 83% of the enterprise workloads will be in the cloud by 2020. The key findings of the survey are illustrated below.
[Link to the image: https://blogs-images.forbes.com/louiscolumbus/files/2018/01/Cloud-Workloads.png]
The leading driving factor for greater public cloud engagement are digitally transforming enterprises (63%). More and more businesses are choosing Oracle Cloud applications to further distinguish and differentiate their products and services in the marketplace. Cloud applications are highly recommended for organizations looking to bring efficiency into their operations and improve their productivity.
Moving to the Cloud
The complete benefit of cloud transformation comes by approaching the transformation as a holistic strategy for digital transformation rather than one-off tactical decisions. Cloud transformation is more about your business than the technology. Oracle Cloud helps businesses derive the most from the cloud by driving change across people, process, and technology. Most successful organizations are of the opinion that cloud transformation is a strategic enabler to business growth.
Some statistics that reveal the widespread adoption of cloud technology are described as follows.
As per Forrester data, 52% of the North American Enterprise infrastructure decision-makers believe that public cloud adoption is a critical future business priority.
Forrester forecasts a 22% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in the public cloud market by 2020 to reach a whopping $236 billion.
Oracle cloud computing applications can be IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, or DaaS services. These services are used to build, deploy, integrate, and extend applications in the cloud. Once businesses decide to migrate to the cloud, the transition needs to be fast, efficient, and cause minimal disruption to existing setup. SMACT Works delivers transformation solutions that connect people, data, processes, and systems seamlessly. Our proven methodology and expertise in cloud migrations ensure maximum return on Oracle cloud investments.
The SMACT Works Advantage
SMACT Works is an Oracle Gold Cloud Standard Partner with extensive experience in the implementation and support of Oracle Cloud applications. With years of experience in supporting Oracle PeopleSoft and Oracle EBS applications, we are the preferred partner for mid-market and enterprise customers looking to transform their business by implementing Oracle Cloud Applications.
Our Oracle-based approach to cloud transformation and unparalleled technical expertise enables a seamless, smooth cloud migration. SMACT Works offers the following services:
  • Accelerated Implementations: This service includes Oracle cloud experts, Rapid Implementation and Migrations, Prebuild Accelerators, Agile and Flexible Approaches.
  • Oracle ERP Cloud: This service offering includes Enterprise Resource Planning – for financials, Procurement, Project Portfolio Management, and Risk Management.
  • Oracle HCM Cloud: This service includes Global Human Resources, Talent management, Workforce Management, Workforce Rewards, and Talent Cloud Services.
  • Oracle SCM Cloud: Procurement, Logistics & Service, Logistics, Order management, product management, and supply chain planning are some of the services covered in Oracle SCM cloud.
  • Oracle EPM Cloud: Financial Consolidations and Close, Planning and Budgeting, EDM, Account Reconciliation, Cost Management and Reporting are the services provided under this service category.
  • Oracle CX Cloud: Engagement, Service, Marketing, Commerce, Configure, Price and Quote, Subscription, Loyalty, Social, and Data cloud services are provided in Oracle CX Cloud.
SMACT Works provides a complete suite of latest modern cloud applications that enable enterprises to enhance their business performance and optimize their operational efficiency.
Enable your business to capture the limitless possibilities that cloud offers. Oracle Cloud applications from SMACT Works enable businesses to use cloud differently. Our cloud applications help businesses deliver amazing customer experiences and streamline their operations. SMACT Works provides strategic and tactical approaches to modernize legacy ERP systems by implementing or coexisting Oracle’s best-of-breed modern cloud applications. To know more about our oracle cloud applications or request a demo, reach out to us at [email protected].
submitted by smactworks to u/smactworks [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 06:24 NuggetHighwind It's about time that we, the community, start to hold Respawn responsible for Apex's servers.

And before you all parrot the same line that we've seen a thousand times, no, they are not "just EA's servers".
At launch, Respawn and a company called Multiplay had a very public partnership, which is still featured heavily on Multiplay's website. Respawn had a massive influx of players, many times more than was expected, and relied on a company called Multiplay to provide server and infrastructure to ensure the game stayed up.
“It’s safe to say that Apex Legends would not have launched as smoothly as it did, if we hadn’t partnered with Multiplay as closely as we did. We anticipated a million players in the first week or two – we got 20 million. You can’t do that without a platform that scales as gracefully as Multiplay does, and so I credit a huge amount of our early success to the partnership with Multiplay for sure.”
-Drew McCoy, Executive Producer at Respawn Source - https://multiplay.com/case-study/apex-legends/
So you can put that card back in the deck.
Apex Legends has some of the worst netcode and servers of any modern shooter, or even shooters released several years ago.
Battle(non)sense on Youtube has an excellent video outlining all the issues with Apex Legends' servers - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PfFPW9a90w
It's worth noting that while server stability has improved since then, all issues in that video are still present, 18 months down the line.
Apex Legends is a cash cow. It has made hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue since the game launched, and yet we are still dealing with major server problems that we've seen since the game launched.
Netcode aside, 20hz servers are, quite frankly, pathetic in a FPS in 2020. For those that don't know what server tick rate is, here's an excerpt from - https://www.nbnco.com.au/blog/entertainment/what-is-tick-rate-and-what-does-it-do
Tick rate is relevant to this client-server relationship because it covers the frequency at which a server processes updates, which is measured in hertz (Hz).
The higher the tick rate value, the faster a player receives input updates from the server which, in turn, makes an online game feel more responsive and truer to the player-side experience.
Basically, the lower the tickrate, the higher the disconnect between what you see and what actually happens. It's a main factor why Apex has such a huge problem of being shot from behind cover. Let's look at some of the other popular shooters around nowadays.
Valorant - 128hz CS:GO - 64hz Overwatch - 63hz Battlefield 1 - 60hz PUBG - 60hz Hyperscape - 60hz CoD:MW - 60hz (20hz for Groundwar, 12hz for private lobbies) Possibly incorrect. Lots of conflicting information. Fortnite - 30hz CoD: Warzone - 20hz Apex Legends - 20hz
Almost every other modern FPS has a server tickrate 3x that of Apex Legends, with Apex being the lowest out of the big 3 Battle Royales on the market (Fortnite, PUBG, Apex) CoD: Warzone has a similar tickrate, and surprise surprise, one of the biggest complaints you'll see from CoD players is how awful the servers are.
But what's even more disappointing than the servers in Apex is the community. Respawn has made one hell of a game, one that we all love, yet this community seems almost happy to excuse every single negative point within the game, no matter how bad it is for them.
Almost every post and thread regarding servers gets downvoted into oblivion, with every reply being variations of "Git gud", "EA's servers", "get over it" "Fuck off and quit" etc.
This isn't something like the armour change that was a subjective preference, the servers are objectively poor, and affect the gaming experience of every. Single. Player.
It's been a year and a half of Apex, with the playerbase rising (according to Respawn), and we're still left with the same crap that we've seen since day 1. It's high time that we, the community, actually start to hold Respawn responsible for giving us a subpar gaming experience, rather than forgiving every wrongdoing and attacking members of the community when they dare to point out flaws.
Edit Post removed by the moderators with zero explanation? Was completely civil and broke no rules. I would very much like an explanation as to why, but the moderators didn't provide any reason.
Apparently Automod nuked the post.
Edit 2
Graph comparing Apex Legends to other modern FPS games. Graph is from the video by Battle (non)Sense that I linked earlier in the post. https://imgur.com/TPGpZMQ Courtesy of steinarr11 for the link.
submitted by NuggetHighwind to apexlegends [link] [comments]


2020.09.09 13:16 chaosof99 Beginner's Guide to the G1 Climax - 2020 Edition

It is September, and while it is an odd time for it, the G1 Climax is about to begin. NJPW has made lots of inroads to make this tournament more interesting for western audiences, and for those who are new I will try to explain the most important details you should know before going on this mad marathon of the best wrestling you will see.
What is NJPW?
New Japan Pro Wrestling is the biggest wrestling promotion in Japan. What separates it from most western promotions is not just the nationality of most of its roster, but also the style of the promotion itself. Here wrestling is still presented as a legit athletic competition. While there are colorful characters and personal feuds, most wrestlers compete in order to prove themselves worthy in the pursuit of a championship. To give them opportunity to do so, NJPW has several major tournaments throughout the year, the biggest of which is the G1.
Another major thing to note about NJPW is that the roster is split into major factions. While stables are of course a staple for most promotions, here the factions are quite large and many feuds are not just between individual wrestlers, but between two stables with various members going after one another. NJPW is also split into two division, with Junior Heavyweights for westlers below 100kg or 220 pounds, and the Heavyweight division for anyone above that. The G1 is almost exclusively a Heavyweight tournament.
What is the G1?
Usually held between July and August, the G1 Climax is the most prestigious tournament in wrestling. Only the cream of the crop is capable of winning it, or doing so will anoint the next big thing in the company. Winning the tournament is a major accomplishment worthy of record books in and of itself. In addition to that, the winner receives a contract that allows them to challenge the champion of the heavyweight division in the main event of Wrestle Kingdom, NJPW's biggest show of the year.
Furthermore, the G1 is important as champions who participate will be challenged by opponents who managed to get a victory over them in the tournament. It also often features rare and interesting matchups, such as between members of the same faction. The tournament is also notorious for the sheer quality of matches it produces.
How is the tournament structured?
Twenty wrestlers are separated into two blocks of ten wrestlers each. Each block has a round-robin tournament where each competitor wrestles each opponent once. Wrestlers are awarded 2 points for a victory, 0 points for a loss, and 1 point each in case of a 30-minute time limit draw. Double count-outs and double-disqualifications are treated as losses for both wrestlers.
When all the block matches have been completed, the wrestler who earned the most points in a block is declared the block-winner (in case of a tie, the record between tied opponents is the tiebreaker). The winners of the two blocks then face each other in the tournament final.
What does an individual tournament show look like?
Due to the large size of the tournament, it is held over a month long period with 19 shows across Japan. Usually this would span the summer but due to the Olympics (and now the pandemic), this year the tournament was scheduled for the fall, running from September 19th to October 18th, with the last three shows being held at the prestigious Ryogoku Sumo Hall.
At a tournament show only one of the blocks is in singles competition with five matches that close the show. The undercard is made up of four to five tag matches, where tournament wrestlers of the other block are joined by non-tournament wrestlers and tease the next tournament day in which their singles matches will happen. Edit: This information is outdated. I was going off how the tournament was structured in the past. This year there will be no undercard tag matches to limit the possibility of a spread of Covid-19, and each event will only have the block matches and the wrestlers of that block. See here.
The final day is different, as the block matches have concluded. The last day sometimes features undercard title matches before the main event which will be the showdown between the block-winners. This match alone gives that show near-PPV status alone.
Where can I watch the G1?
All tournament shows will be broadcast live on njpwworld.com. Due to the circumstances of the pandemic, this year the live broadcast will only be available with japanese commentary, but english commentary will be an option on the VOD which should be available about a day later. Here a link to the full broadcast schedule.
A subscription to njpwworld.com costs 999¥ a month ($9.43, £7.23 or 8,00€ as of writing). The site bills strictly by month, so you will have to buy it for September and October to watch the tournament in full, though a later subscription also gives you full access to its archives including tournament matches. Also note that your access is revoked as soon as you submit your cancellation, so you should cancel at the end of the month to get full value out of it.
Who participates in the G1 this year?
Despite the current situation NJPW has still managed to bring back a large amount of their foreign talent to participate in the tournament.
Block A consists this year of:
Block B consists of:
Final advice
The G1 is a long and arduous event. This is true for both the wrestlers and the viewers. Do not feel pressured into having to watch every minute of every show. Fatigue is an actual concern and you can and should pace yourself. However, the journey is worth it and you will see some of the best wrestling on the planet as a reward.
Stickied and gold. You people are too kind.
submitted by chaosof99 to SquaredCircle [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 22:30 JonKnowles8 GROUP ORGANIZING FOR A "BLUE WAVE" IN 2020

Links to Movement Voter Project, MoveOn, Organizing Together 2020, Indivisible, Center for Common Ground, Swing Left, Seed the Vote, Water for Grassroots, Standing Up for Racial Justice (SURJ), Vote Vets, Vote Blue, Progressive Change Campaign, Occupy Democrats, Field Team Six, Common Cause, Power California, Stand Up America, Flip Force, Progressive Turnout Project, Vote Save America, Represent Us, Mobilize, and others.
1. Movement Voter Project: https://movement.vote/groups
Extensive list (437 groups) of grassroots organizations working to beat Trump. Listed by state. Can filter by issue areas, constituencies, or nonprofit type.
“While the Democrats obsess over the primary, the GOP is focused on the Big Five states most likely to decide the 2020 general election: Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Florida, and Arizona. We need to invest now in local groups in these Big Five states. They know how to organize their own communities. But they need our support today to lay the groundwork to win in November.”
2. MoveOn (on Facebook, 1.6m followers)
Web site: https://front.moveon.org/
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/watch/moveon/
“MoveOn Political Action announced the launch of its America for All 2020 election program to mobilize millions of members to defeat Donald Trump, end Republican control of the Senate, and help Democrats hold the majority in the House of Representatives.
“Millions of MoveOn members, who live in each of the country’s 3,000+ counties, will volunteer and donate to candidates, contact voters in key battleground states, drive creative and cultural interventions that inspire voter turnout, and work to protect the right to vote for those targeted by digital voter suppression online. The combined election effort is expected to cost $20 million.
MoveOn is prioritizing the presidential and Senate battleground states of Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. MoveOn members will also mobilize to support dozens of House candidates, including in primaries.”
3. Organizing Together 2020: https://organizing2020.com/
Organized by top Democratic Party operatives and elected officials. A “federal, independent campaign and coalition that will operate in the 2020 battleground states of Arizona, Florida, Michigan, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. It is a campaign designed to give organizations and individuals a home in their communities to begin organizing against Donald Trump and his agenda.”
A Politico article on this effort: https://www.politico.com/news/2020/01/31/obamas-field-guru-leading-massive-organizing-effort-109805
4. Indivisible: https://indivisible.org/
“The Indivisible Project's mission is to cultivate a grassroots movement of literally thousands of local Indivisible groups to elect progressive leaders, realize bold progressive policies, rebuild our democracy, and defeat the Trump agenda.”
PayBack Project is an Indivisible Action project: https://www.paybackproject.org/#home-plan
“Build awareness & accountability. When senators take bad votes or do something else awful, we’ll be in their states to broadcast it and hold them accountable for refusing to listen to constituents. And we’ll keep reminding voters of their stances on the Affordable Care Act, abortion bans, climate change, and all our other top issues. You can vote on where we place our first newspaper ad here.”
Other projects: Take the Indivisible 2020 Pledge. Hold Senate Republicans Accountable. How the Candidates Stack up. Demand Your Representative Rein in Trump’s March to War.
“Boost local political power. We’ll do the work to get as many people involved in the election as possible, educating folks about what’s at stake, growing the size of our local Indivisible groups, funneling voters in these nine states directly to their local Indivisible group, and increasing logistical support for their election activities and recruitment efforts through trainings, organizer support, and powerful new tools.”
5. Center for Common Ground – Reclaim Our Vote: Help Save Our Democracy!
https://actionnetwork.org/forms/reclaim-our-vote-signup
“Help empower voters in communities of color in voter suppression states!
Reclaim our vote, a non-partisan phone bank, post carding and textbanking campaign created by the Center For Common Ground focuses on contacting voters of color in voter-suppression states to help them register and vote.”
“Over the past few decades, voter suppression and voter list purging have stealthily disenfranchised millions of citizens. Black Voters Matter and the Reclaim Our Vote project made 253,000 phone calls in fall 2018, including 185,000 calls to Georgia (with Black Voters Matter), 29,000 calls to Mississippi, 19,000 calls to Virginia, and 5,000 calls to Texas. Canvassing teams on the ground followed up with those who could not be reached by phone. In 2019 we have sent 180,000 postcards, 114,000 texts, and 55,000 GOTV calls in Virginia as well as calls in North Carolina. In 2020 we will focus on Texas, Arizona, Colorado, and other Southern states.”
6. Swing Left: https://swingleft.org/about
“In 2018, taking back the House was the one big way we put a check on Trump and the GOP. And in 2020 there’ll be lots of key ways to further curb their destructive agenda and restore our democracy: flipping the Senate, defending the House, winning the state-level races needed to ensure fair maps in the 2021 redistricting—and, of course, taking back the Presidency.
“Swing Left helps you find the most impactful things you can do to help Democrats win the most important elections. 2020 is here, and the work defeat Trump and the GOP in 2020 starts NOW. Sign up to receive actions you can take, as they become available.
“We all want to save the country from the forces attacking our democracy. But, most of us don’t live in Swing Districts or Super States, where the races really matter. We work to make it as easy as possible for you to have maximum impact on the elections that matter most — from wherever you live. Learn more about the most important local and national races affecting our country. Connect with other volunteers and organizers, in person and online. Fundraise or donate to candidates strategically. Write letters, canvass, phonebank, host or attend events, and more.”
7. Seed the Vote – Everyday People PAC
https://www.everydaypeoplepac.org/seedthevote/
“THE PLAN: Hundreds of Bay Area activists will travel to Arizona from October 10 – October 25, 2020. Working closely with local grassroots groups like LUCHA that organize in their communities year-round, we’ll knock on thousands of doors to help defeat Trump. Then we’ll bring skills and commitment back to our local movements to continue fighting for our communities. This crucial early voting time is when the majority of votes will be cast, and it can make or break the election. We will help coordinate travel, lodging and fundraising for the trip**.”**(They may also offer shorter periods to volunteer in swing states.)
8. Get Organized: Water for Grassroots: https://getorganizedbk.org/water-for-grassroots/
“Mission: We work to support community organizing groups in the swing states & red states, helping them build grassroots political power that can last beyond a single election cycle. Based in NYC, Water For Grassroots (W4G) has helped local organizers register voters in Pennsylvania, worked with Florida activists to support a referendum on expanding voting rights & raised small-dollar donations for grassroots groups in Alabama and elsewhere.”
9. Showing Up for Racial Justice (SURJ): https://www.showingupforracialjustice.org/
SURJ has launched an electoral program focused on winning whites in rural and small towns and battleground areas to vote against Trump. Video excerpts from the rollout of their program:
https://organizingupgrade.com/building-the-white-stripe-for-a-2020-rainbow-win/
“Showing Up for Racial Justice (SURJ) and the Working Families Party (WFP) are partnering up in 2020 to bring more poor and working whites into multiracial coalitions, play a meaningful role in breaking off a piece of the right’s voter base in key battleground states, and build power and infrastructure that will help lay the groundwork for racial and economic justice victories for years to come.”
10. Vote Vets: https://www.votevets.org/
“Started in 2006 and backed by more than 700,000 veterans, military family members and their supporters, the mission of VoteVets.org is to use public issue campaigns to give a voice to veterans on matters of national security, veterans' care, and every day issues that affect the lives of those who served, and their families.”
In the field, VoteVets Action Fund has: Over 700,000 supporters in all 50 states, including troops, veterans, military families, and their supporters. State Captains organizing in all 50 states. Over 50 million voter contacts since 2006, spending over $5 million in direct mail, phone calls, and voter canvasses. Over $120 million raised and spent since inception. On the air, VoteVets Action Fund has: Run over 51 TV commercials and radio spots in 32 states advocating the support of our friends. Aired over $50 million in television and radio ads, advocating re-election for veterans, allies and urging defeat of those who do not support troops and veterans. In the media, VoteVets Action Fund has: Done over 900 interviews, news stories, and on-air media appearances
Dropped over 1000 Letters to the Editors and Opinion-Editorials throughout the 50 states from local veterans. On social media, VoteVets Action Fund has: over 175,000 followers on Facebook,
over 170,000 followers on Twitter, over 4,000 followers on Instagram.
11. Vote Blue! (on Reddit, a social media platform)
https://www.reddit.com/VoteBlue/
Vote Blue is a subreddit dedicated to promoting and helping elect down-ballot Democrats all across the United States of America! (62,200 members). Contents: Posts, Wiki, Volunteer from Home, More Voluntary&Donations, Voting Information, Jobs and Campaiging, Democratic Party.
Volunteer from Home! (Has links for campaigns to volunteer for.)
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1aPO5ZeC42Jc1U70FQeqYoDsMepTnQOXyl_LHl6aRH68/edit?fbclid=IwAR2_y5M0s9-gvBiJ9OjV4-xO-ZLW5gXcC32Mdv01csHq2wb4TSkF2tmIqek#gid=0
12. Progressive Change Campaign Committee – BoldProgressives.Org
https://www.boldprogressives.org/
The Progressive Change Campaign Committee (PCCC, BoldProgressives.org) is a million-member grassroots organization building power at the local, state, and federal levels. It engages in electoral work and issue advocacy work on democracy issues and for economic populist priorities. The PCCC has raised over $29 million online in grassroots donations for its electoral and advocacy work, and directly for progressive candidates and committees.
Senator Elizabeth Warren said: “PCCC members were with me since the beginning — even before there was a beginning! Now, we have lots of work to do together.”
Some of our issues include: Expanding Social Security, Debt-free college, Allowing everyone to buy health care coverage through Medicare, Wall Street reform and accountability, Stopping surveillance and protecting privacy, Stopping bad trade deals like TPP, Free and open Internet, Paid family leave.
We also support candidates running for office through fundraising, volunteers, training, and technology. We’ve supported candidates with millions of phone calls to voters through our Call Out The Vote program, and trained thousands of candidates and campaign staffers in the nuts-and-bolts of running for office.
We also have a proud affiliation with the P Street Project (c4).
13. Occupy Democrats https://occupydemocrats.com/ "Mission: Founded in late 2012 by Omar and Rafael Rivero, Occupy Democrats is a political organization and news website that provided an online counterbalance to the Republican “Tea Party.” Since then, it has grown into the largest and most active community of Democratic voters in the world and has spearheaded the resistance to President Trump and his radical supporters.
"The Occupy Movement changed the national conversation around the issue of class and inequality, but unlike the Tea Party, it unfortunately failed to achieve major legislative victories. Inspired by the Occupy Movement’s revolutionary energy and ideals, we aim to create a more equal society for ALL by working with progressives, labor unions, and the Democratic Party to beat back the wealthy oligarchs and their servants in Congress.
"Our mission is to Occupy Democrats on November 2020 AND BEYOND by voting in a LANDSLIDE of progressive Democratic candidates dedicated to rolling back President Trump’s extremist agenda and making Congress work for Main Street instead of Wall Street. We’re going to do that by advancing a bold progressive agenda, including Medicare-for-All, free public college tuition, and a $15 federal minimum wage for hard-working Americans."
14. Field Team Six
https://www.fieldteam6.org/
Has a filter to check for all upcoming events by these six groups:
Grassroots Democrats HQ, Our Florida 2020, PA Democratic Party, Swing Left, Swing Left Greater Boston
The Problem: America is under attack by its own president, who proudly sides with the three forces that sought to end us: the Confederacy, the Nazis, and Russia. And the Republican Party has become Trump’s political hit man. But as everything else gets murky, two things remain clear. One: they must be stopped. And two: we must stop them. To do that, we need to take back the White House, flip the Senate, grow our House majority, and win the state legislatures who can roll back gerrymandering. But how?
The Strategy
To win on November 3, 2020, we need to register Democrats where they will make the most impact – in our Battleground States. These are the purple states where new Democrats will help us swing elections, from the House to the Senate to the White House. Finding Democrats here is a search-and-rescue mission behind enemy lines.
Use the Field Team 6 Heat Map by typing in your zip code to instantly get a list of high-priority targets near you, where registering Democrats can have a huge impact on elections. These states and districts are where we take our stand.
The Path Forward
  1. Register progressive voters! We’ve registered over 20,000 so far, and we’re just getting started. Join a virtual drive to phone or text bank into swing states! Or take a training so you can register Democrats in person as soon as it’s safe to get back out there!
  2. Raise funds! In Field Team 6, we have created a machine that turns dollars into Democrats. Help us win elections up and down the ballot by donating HERE. Or if you’d like to throw a virtual fundraising party, concert, or comedy night, contact us!
  3. Lend us your talents! If you are a graphic designer, a lawyer, a coder, or have any other talent you can share, we’d love to have you on Field Team 6. Let us know here!
15. Common Cause – Voting and Election Campaigns
https://www.commoncause.org/our-work/voting-and-elections/
Election Integrity, National Popular Vote, Election Protection, Voting Tools. Voting Rights, Voter Registration and Modernization
16. Power California
https://powercalifornia.org/
Voting resources: https://powercalifornia.org/voting-resources
We are a statewide multi-racial civic engagement organization made up of on-the-ground community partners in urban, suburban and rural communities throughout the state.
Our Vision: Power California emerged from the union of Mobilize The Immigrant Vote and YVote, two of California’s most successful organizers of immigrants, refugees and youth of color.
At Power California, we believe we can make California stronger if we all have an equal say in the decisions that impact our lives. But right now the voices that are most missing from our systems of governance are young people of color and their families.
That’s why Power California harnesses the energy of the largest and most diverse generation to create a state that is fair, inclusive and just for everyone who calls California home. We are building the power of young people of color and their families to participate and lead systems of government at all levels and to ensure that voters and elected leaders mirror the rich diversity that is California.
Our vision for the future: All who call California home – regardless of citizenship – participate fully in decision-making for a just, safe, and culturally-vibrant state. Power rests with the people, and those with the least economic, socio-cultural and political power have equal say in determining our state’s future.
California welcomes and fully embraces all people and our stories in every aspect our state, regardless of migration status, race-ethnicity, systems impact, class, gender, sexuality, disability, or age. Our state centers young people, families and communities of color so California thrives together.
17. Stand Up America
https://www.standupamerica.com/our-fight/mobilize-for-2020/
Stand Up America began in the weeks after the 2016 election, when hundreds of thousands of concerned Americans came together online to organize and resist Trump’s dangerous agenda. Our community has quickly grown to over two million Americans, across all 50 states, who are taking action and making their voices heard daily.
WHAT WE’RE FIGHTING FOR
Donald Trump is an existential threat to our democracy. The Senate failed to remove him, so it’s up to us to vote him out this November — and hold Republican senators accountable for failing to protect our democracy.
This year, we’ll be registering voters and helping to get out the vote in key states to defeat Trump, flip the Senate, and pass critical democracy reforms at the ballot box. That’s the only way we can stop Trump’s corrupt agenda, strengthen our democracy, and enact progressive policies.
And we need the help of every member of the Stand Up America community to get it done.
(Stand Up America has a campaign to text purged voters.)
18. Flip Force
https://www.flipthewest.com/flipforce
Flip the West provides a clearinghouse of electoral engagement programs for people who want to make a difference. We work closely with Resistance, labor, progressive, and community organizations in states in the West with a Senate seat that could flip blue this year, and we have a vast network of supporters in deep blue districts ready and willing to get involved. We call them our Flip Force.
Flip the West’s Flip Force is an informal association of organizations and individuals that work with us on the important task at hand: taking back the Senate. We provide Flip Force members a wide variety of opportunities to get involved in direct voter outreach, including phonebanking, texting, postcards, and canvassing trips. These programs have been developed in close coordination with our on-the-ground partners in the target states..
Our Flip Force partners also gain access to trainings and strategic consulting from campaign professionals.
Flip Force allied organizations include chapters of Indivisible, Swing Left, Seed the Vote, Rise Up, Rock the Congress, and about 30 other organizations.
19. Progressive Turnout Project
https://www.turnoutpac.org/
HOW WE’RE DIFFERENT
Progressive Turnout Project is a grassroots-funded organization with a single mission: get Democrats to the polls. We design, test, and execute specialized voter turnout programs targeting inconsistent Democratic voters in the most competitive districts in the country.
DEMOCRATS WIN WHEN TURNOUT IS HIGH
The best way to turn out voters is with one-on-one conversations.
Progressive Turnout Project is built around this truth, proven time and time again by researchers — including us. On average, our 2018 field work boosted voter turnout by 10.4 percent.
How does that happen? We’re talking to inconsistent voters who are likely Democrats, so they don’t need persuading on who to vote for. They just need a nudge, some information, and to hear from a real person. That means every eligible non-voter we’re able to reach brings Democrats closer to success on Election Day.
Compared to expensive TV ads — which research shows are ineffective at mobilizing voters — we have a much larger impact for our investment.
(The project has a large staff, is hiring, offers a variety of election activities, has detailed maps of districts.)
20. Vote Save America
https://votesaveamerica.com/save-america/
This election is the most important election of our lifetimes, with consequences that will last long after November 3rd. Do more than just vote. Find out where you can volunteer, donate, and get involved where you're needed most.
ADOPT A STATE
You don’t live in a battleground state. So how do you help out in the states that will determine who wins in 2020? We finally have an answer: No matter where you live, you can directly support the work of organizers, volunteers, and candidates in the six key battleground states that will be most important to delivering a progressive majority in 2020. Just pick a state below, sign up, and we’ll get you everything you need to make a big difference this November.
Find an event near you. Find a job.
Recommended by President Barack Obama on Facebook and Twitter
https://www.facebook.com/barackobama/
https://twitter.com/BarackObama
21. RepresentUs
https://represent.us/
We bring together conservatives, progressives, and everyone in between to pass powerful anti-corruption laws that stop political bribery, end secret money, and fix our broken elections**.**
Nearly every issue you care about is blocked or skewed by our rigged political system. We're here to fix that.
You can fight corruption by joining campaigns across the country right now. It's easy - just choose a way to get involved below:
Join the Action Brigade. Demand Vote at Home in Very State. National Phone bank to Build Momentum for 2020. The 2020 Presidential Anti-Corruption Scoreboard.
22. Mobilize
https://www.mobilize.us/
An umbrella organization listing volunteer opportunities across the country. Filter by 17 different kinds of event (online/remote and in-person; by Day, zip code, and “from any campaign”.
Left Groups and Progressive Individuals:
**Greg Palast:**https://www.gregpalast.com/
A leading researcheactivist combating voter suppression. Author of "The Best Democracy Money Can Buy: A Tale of Billionaires & Ballot Bandits" (2016) and "Armed Madhouse: From Baghdad to New Orleans-Sordid Secrets and Strange Tales of a White House Gone Wild" (2007)
Democratic Socialists of America (DSA): https://www.dsausa.org/
“The Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) is the largest socialist organization in the United States. We believe that working people should run both the economy and society democratically to meet human needs, not to make profits for a few. We are a political and activist organization, not a party; through campus and community-based chapters, DSA members use a variety of tactics, from legislative to direct action, to fight for reforms that empower working people.”
Bernie Sanders and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (AOC) are members. In Nov 2019, DSA had over 56,000 members.
Campaigns: Green New Deal, DSA for Bernie, Electoral Strategy, Strong Labor Movement, Medicare for All.
Organizing Upgrade. Engaging Left Organizers in Strategic Dialogue.
https://organizingupgrade.com/tag/2020-this-is-not-a-drill/
Topics, Blogs, Strategy Labs, Articles, Videos, Rainbow Debates, Beyond Bernie

submitted by JonKnowles8 to organizingfor2020 [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 04:27 WannabeStonks69 CIEN DD

CIEN DD
Ciena Due Diligence

Tl;dr CIEN is a relatively undervalued communications company that should see tremendous growth in the next few years.
Ciena provides telecom hardware and NaaS or networks as a service to multiple large network providers including AT&T and Verizon. They provide hardware through their converged packet optical solutions such as their Waveservers which give datacenters high-bandwidth connections for single span, metro, long haul, and subsea connections. These devices constantly generate more return on assets for Ciena compared to their primary competitor, Juniper (JNPR) at 7.4% ROA against JNPR’s 4% ROA. Other hardware/optical solutions from Ciena are created with the goal of “scaling capacity, increase transmission speeds, allocate traffic and adapt dynamically”, and most of these goals are met uniquely by the products they provide, their Waveservers have great adaptability with the physical product itself being easy to install and stackable plus a provided suite of software management interfaces and APIs for ease of use. Ciena’s Blue Planet AI gives network providers (like Verizon) data analytics to help them optimize their networks, but they also have bandwidth on demand, which basically helps companies that provide on demand services provide them faster and more efficiently, with the AI automating bandwidth usage to reduce fulfillment costs by up to 90% against static services. This along with network virtualization rounds out Ciena’s network pitch, which also has a nice tie-in with making cloud-based services, streaming, and cellular traffic more network-efficient. More specifically, things like edge-based computing (VAcloud gaming), ML, Ultra-HD video, and 5G cell networks are going to become much more efficient if companies dealing in these products use Ciena’s services. So as you can see Ciena has a diversified customer base, they’re not just a networking and telecom solutions company, they provide so much more in terms of value creation for web-scale companies. The best thing about Ciena is that even though it’s a modern tech company, it’s still asset intensive, which means that there’s a far lower chance one will just find a substitute for it. Many of the other tech companies I’ve looked into only have services as their niche and lack any real assets to back them up. Verizon, AT&T and CenturyLink are huge customers of Ciena’s and make up greater than 20% of their total revenue. This is a good sign in the sense that Ciena has huge customers that’ll constantly require their services and it’s also not necessarily good because a large portion of their total revenues also rely on the fact that these companies won’t just acquire another company that can develop similar services in-house for a lower cost. Thankfully, Ciena has lots of development going on the web-scale side anyway: “Sales to Web-scale provider customers, representing approximately 22% of total revenue and growing over 40% year-over-year, were an important contributor to our annual revenue growth”, so their consumer base should be further diversified in the near future. Ciena is also planning on expanding into foreign markets, but their first two foreign countries will be Canada and India (arguably the country with most potential for private infiltration into telecom and 5G networks considering the amount of cloud-based companies that operate from there) and they will provide converged packet optical services to Airtel, Jio (Facebook recently partnered with them), and Vodafone, the biggest cellular connectivity providers in India, which has really helped their bottom line: “After recent years of strong growth driven by aggressive network build outs by service providers in India, capital spending in this region decreased year-over-year. We believe our business and financial performance in recent years highlights the benefits of our diverse global business and our ability to target high growth segments within our markets.”
The management team believes that this is what they’ll be targeting in terms of the market opportunity they’re taking on: “The business models of many network operators are under pressure to constrain their capital expenditure budgets, as they cannot grow their network spending at the rate of bandwidth growth. To address these growing service demands and better manage network cost, many network operators are looking to adopt next-generation infrastructures that are more programmable and better capable of leveraging data for network insight, analytics and automation.”
Ciena’s price recently tanked a lot due to them throwing caution to the wind that COVID would certainly cause challenges despite the recently strong growth for them earnings-wise, but the first line of the last 8k was the following: "We delivered outstanding financial results in the third quarter, reflecting our continued innovation, market leadership and strong competitive position in an uncertain macro environment,“ said Gary Smith, President and CEO, Ciena. “Although COVID-related market dynamics have resulted in an order slowdown and are likely to adversely impact our revenue for a few quarters, we are confident in our ability to continue executing on our strategy and expanding our market leadership."
I’m not sure why the market then reacted with a 25% dump in stock prices, because I highly doubt earnings will even suffer by much. I believe that these days just being conservative with your opening remarks is enough to scare investors into selling, especially during a volatile market like this. But fear not because Ciena has a beta of 0.80 and average target price of $57.47, so buy the dip. It’s only because of the tech slowdown compounded with neutral guidance that CIEN slumped, there’s not going to be much more room for going down so buy before a new bullish trend begins.
Now let’s jump into the financials (just remember that Ciena has had several acquisitions throughout the years), where I think Ciena really stands out, or at least shows to be competent in terms of money management:
Ciena has had consistently growing gross profits from both products and services for the past three years.

Decreasing liabilities and increasing cash reserves are always a great sign

Consistently increasing free cash flow
Increasing return on invested capital (ROIC)


Increasing operating margins
decreasing days for cash conversion


Decreasing SG&A expenses/per $ of Profit

https://preview.redd.it/vc4jxdbn2ul51.png?width=628&format=png&auto=webp&s=4783b7c88ba3425af1a89bb6807d2b81ad0ad477
Ciena still has a lot of room to reduce operating expenses however, and that’s a sign of either a company in a heavily competitive environment or a company which has yet to develop. But if there’s one thing I’ve learned from the investment books that I’ve read, it’s that your returns will be better when you invest in a company whose competitive advantage has yet to fully develop, rather than investing in a company with huge net profit margins and low opex (this usually means the company is already established).

Total liabilities decreased between 2018 and 2019, always a good sign

Huge jump in operating cash flows from 2018-19

https://preview.redd.it/uxa48ewu2ul51.png?width=477&format=png&auto=webp&s=c7bc890974a0921bebf0a8443da23d015e7e1d57


Increasing cash *reserves* as well

https://preview.redd.it/a9gj1oaz2ul51.png?width=659&format=png&auto=webp&s=25c99c1b236bf8ad1ceaa5bb4fe488950ba739ab

https://preview.redd.it/8t4qk3w23ul51.png?width=714&format=png&auto=webp&s=c700366dad51d90b40b9579253c610778a15d000
Because of the recent dump in the stock price, Ciena is at a perfect buy-in point now, and it’s only up 3.5% YTD because of it. Increasing margins and overall returns make this a prime candidate to sustain a recession and advance to higher highs when the full potential of this company is realized. With tremendous web-scale growth and a unique AI enterprise product, this company sets itself apart in the telecom arena and has tons of growth potential outside of and inside of the telecom sector. Ciena has no other competitors of its size (which is relatively small with only a 7B market cap, just showing you how much growth potential there really is). Also Ciena makes exclusively optical hardware products to focus on, where it has other big competitors who actually lag behind Ciena when it comes to market share and innovation. (https://www.sdxcentral.com/articles/news/cisco-ciena-huawei-and-nokia-lead-optical-vendors-ihs-says/2018/07/)
Positions: October 51 calls
submitted by WannabeStonks69 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]


2020.09.07 05:28 Floodman11 Everything you need to know for the 2020 24 Hours of Le Mans - Ask your questions here!

With only days separating us from the 88th running of the 24 Heures du Mans, it's time again for the Le Mans Primer thread! This is the place if you’ve got any questions about the 2020 Le Mans event, no matter how small! There are no dumb questions about Le Mans!

CONTENTS

The Race

The 24 Heures du Mans brings up its 88th edition this year, and is the holy grail of endurance motor racing. After its first running in 1923, the course and cars have evolved to become the premier event in the World Endurance Championship, and the event is recognised as the most prestigious test for innovations in motorsport technology. Technologies such as disk and air brakes, streamlined bodywork, and a variety of engine configurations were trialled and tested at the 24 hours of Le Mans. The Mazda 787b (oh god listen to that sound!) was the first, and so far only car to win running a Wankel Rotary engine, winning in 1991. Audi brought diesel engines their first success in 2006 with the R10 TDI, and then brought Hybrid technology to victory for the first time in 2012 with the R18 e-tron Quattro.
For the first time in over 50 years, the 24 Hours of Le Mans will be held in September, instead of it's normal third-weekend-in-June date. This will mean more night time running, potentially more inclement weather, and a spectacle unlike any other Le Mans event!
This years edition also marks a significant first, and a significant farewell for the 24 Hours of Le Mans Event. Firstly, this year is the first year of the new Hyperpole qualifying format. In this format, all classes are permitted to use the track in the 45 minute qualifying session on Thursday evening. The top 6 cars from each of the 4 classes then progress to the Hyperpole session on Friday morning, which sets the top of the grid for each class. This means that each class will be segregated on the final grid.
Secondly, with the introduction of the LMH regulations starting next year, this is the last edition featuring LMP1 as the top class at Le Mans. The LMP moniker has been used at Le Mans since 1996, where it was used to describe purpose built race machines as opposed to the homologated LMGT1 class, which were based on road-going machinery.

Session Times

  • Road To Le Mans Practice 1 - Thursday September 17th, 08:30 Local, 06:30 UTC, 02:30 ET, 16:30 AEST - 1 Hour - Results
  • Free Practice 1 - Thursday September 17th, 10:00 Local, 08:00 UTC, 04:00 ET, 18:00 AEST - 3 Hours - RESULTS
  • Free Practice 2 - Thursday September 17th, 14:00 Local, 12:00 UTC, 08:00 ET, 22:00 AEST - 3 Hours - RESULTS
  • Qualifying Practice - Thursday September 15 Local, 15:15 UTC, 11:15 ET, Friday 01:15 AEST - 45 Minutes - RESULTS
  • Road To Le Mans Practice 2 - Thursday September 17th, 18:30 Local, 16:30 UTC, 12:30 ET, Friday 02:30 AEST - 1 Hour - Results
  • Free Practice 3 - Thursday September 17th, 20:00 Local, 18:00 UTC, 14:00 ET, Friday 04:00 AEST - 4 Hours RESULTS
  • Road To Le Mans Qualifying Practice - Friday September 18th, 08:30 Local, 06:30 UTC, 02:30 ET, 16:30 AEST - 20 Min x 2 classes
  • Free Practice 4 - Friday September 18th, 10:00 Local, 08:00 UTC, 04:00 ET, 18:00 AEST - 1 Hour
  • HYPERPOLE - Friday September 18th, 11:30 Local, 09:30 UTC, 05:30 ET, 19:30 AEST - 30 Minutes
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Practice 1 - Friday September 18th, 13:00 Local, 11:00 UTC, 07:00 ET, 21:00 AEST - 45 Minutes
  • Road To Le Mans Race 1 - Friday September 18th, 14:15 Local, 12:15 UTC, 08:15 ET, 22:15 AEST - 55 Minutes
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Practice 2 - Friday September 18th, 15:45 Local, 13:45 UTC, 09:45 ET, 23:45 AEST - 45 Minutes
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Qualifying Practice - Friday September 18th, 17:30 Local, 15:30 UTC, 11:30 ET, Saturday 01:30 AEST - 1 Hour
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Race - Saturday September 19th, 09:15 Local, 07:15 UTC, 03:15 ET, 17:15 AEST - 45 Minutes
  • Warm Up - Saturday September 19th, 10:30 Local, 08:30 UTC, 04:30 ET, 18:30 AEST - 15 Minutes
  • Road to Le Mans Race 2 - Saturday September 19th, 11:15 Local, 09:15 UTC, 05:15 ET, 19:15 AEST - 55 Minutes
  • RACE START - Saturday September 19th, 14:30 Local, 12:30 UTC, 08:30 ET, 22:30 AEST

The Track

The Circuit de la Sarthe covers 13.6 kilometres of the French country side. It combines the permanent race components of the Ford Chicanes, the pit straight, under the Dunlop Bridge and through to Tertre Rouge as well as the normal everyday roads of the Mulsanne straight through to Indianapolis and Arnage. The track has gone through many iterations over the years; originally, the cars raced into the heart of the city, turning just before the river Sarthe, before hurtling down the 8.6 kilometre straight. In 1932, the circuit removed the journey into the city, and more closely resembled the track we see today. Here’s a video of Mike Hawthorn touring the circuit with a camera and microphone attached in 1956, one year after his involvement in the Le Mans disaster. The addition of the Porsche Curves and the Ford Chicanes in 1972 added an extra dimension to the high speed, fast flowing track. In the late 80’s, the Group C prototype cars would reach over 400km/h, achieving average speeds of almost 250km/h in qualifying for the entire lap. This is an onboard of Derek Bell’s Porsche 956 in 1983, showing the ridiculous speeds on this configuration of the circuit. This configuration remained relatively unchanged right up to 1990, until FIA mandations required that for the circuit to be sanctioned, it must not have a straight longer than 2km. The 6km Mulsanne straight was cut down into three relatively equal length portions by two chicanes, giving the iteration of the circuit used today. Allan McNish takes you on an onboard lap of the current circuit in this video. McNish is one of the gods of the modern prototype era, winning Le Mans 3 times; once with Porsche and twice with Audi. For a more comprehensive focus on the track, John Hindhaugh’s track walk takes you on a 30 minute exploration of the track, with in depth focus on corners like the Dunlop Esses, Tertre Rouge, Mulsanne Corner, and the Ford Chicanes.
Finally, check out the fastest ever lap in the Circuit de la Sarthe: Kamui Kobayashi's 3:14.791 in 2017 Q2
The Dunlop Bridge
The iconic Dunlop Bridge has been a part of the Le Mans track since 1932, making it the oldest Dunlop Bridge at any track. This part of the track requires a good launch out of the first chicane before cresting the brow of the hill, and plunging through the esses out onto the Mulsanne straight. As the LMP cars are much more maneuverable, caution must be taken passing the slower GT traffic, as Allan McNish discovered in 2011.
Tertre Rouge
Tertre Rouge is the corner that launches the cars onto the long Mulsanne straight. Maintaining momentum through this corner as it opens on exit is imperative to ensure maximum straight line speed heading down the first part of the Mulsanne. The undulation in the road makes for fantastic viewing at night, with some magic images of the Porsches throwing up sparks on the exit in 2014. Finally, this was the location of Allan Simonsen’s fatal crash in mixed conditions in the 2013 Le Mans. The Danish flags will fly at the corner in his memory.
Mulsanne Corner
After the incredibly long Mulsanne straight, the Mulsanne corner nowadays features a subtle right hand kink before the tight 90 degree turn. Here, the cars decelerate from 340 km/h down to below 100 km/h, resulting in a brilliant opportunity to overtake. Again, care must be taken overtaking slower traffic; unaware drivers have caught out faster cars attempting to pass through the kink, such as Anthony Davidson’s spectacular crash in 2012 resulting in a broken vertebra for Davidson.
Indianapolis and Arnage
The Indanapolis and Arnage complex is one of the most committed areas of the track. Hurtling down the hill from the Mulsanne Corner, the road suddenly bends to the right, a corner which only the bravest prototype drivers take flat out, followed by a beautifully cambered open left hander taken in third gear. A short sprint leads the cars into Arnage, the slowest point on the track. The tight right hander was the scene of heartbreak for Toyota in 2014 when the leading #7 broke down and had to be retired after an FIA sensor melted and shut off the electronics. Kazuki Nakajiima was unable to make it to the pits, leaving him stranded on the circuit.
The Porsche Curves
High speed and with barely any run off, the Porsche Curves is the most committed part of the lap. Getting caught behind GT traffic in this section can mean losing phenomenal amounts of time. This was the site of Loic Duval’s horrific crash in practice for the 2014 event. Keeping momentum through the flowing right-left-right handers that lead into Maison Blanche requires 100% commitment and ultimate precision, with severe punishment for getting it wrong.
The Ford Chicanes
The final chapter in the 13.6km rollercoaster that is Le Mans is the Ford Chicanes. Two tight left-right handers with massive kerbs are all that separates the driver from the finish line. Watching the cars bounce over the kerbs in beautiful slow motion is certainly something to behold, but 24 hours of mistreatment can lead to suspension and steering issues. The drivers have to be attentive until the very end, lest they throw it all away in the last minutes of the race. This year, it’s expected that the LMP1 teams will have to flawlessly navigate the circuit almost 400 times during the 24 hours of racing.

The Classes

The WEC consists of four classes on track at once, resulting in four separate races on track each in their own battle for 24 Hours. The classes are split by car type into Prototype and GT, and then further into Pro and Amateur. Each class has it's own set of regulations, driver requirements, and relevance for the Le Mans event

LMP1 is the top class of Sportscars, and features the fastest prototype closed top race cars. The cars rival F1 cars in terms of performance and lap times, and are capable of lapping the Le Mans circuit in around 3:20. The cars in this class are built specifically for endurance racing, and are limited by both instantaneous and average fuel flow, to put the focus of the class onto development of efficiency. This year, Toyota is the only OEM manufacturer, with 3 privateer teams bringing along three different chassis to take a shot at the overall victory. As Toyota's car is a hybrid, and the privateer cars are not, the different types of car have to be balanced by a process called "Equivalence of Technology", or EoT. For more information on how EoT is calculated and applied, check out this article on the Le Mans website For those who have followed the WEC all season, it is important to note that the Success Handicap that has been applied throughout the season will not be applied at Le Mans. Thus, we will see the full unshackled ability of the cars in LMP1 for the 24 Hours!

The second prototype class is LMP2, and provides an excellent platform for endurance racing on a budget. The LMP2 class features a spec drivetrain and gearbox, using a Gibson V8 producing 600hp, and a selection of three chassis to choose from (well four really but we don't talk about Riley). This ensures that the competition in the class is very tight, and often comes down to the drivers and the teams performance instead of just having the best car. The LMP2 category is only just a step down from LMP1, with rivalling top speeds, and can lap in around 3:30.
LMP2 is the first class that must feature amateur rated drivers. The Amateurs must drive for a minimum of 6 hours in the car over the course of the race. This means that there's an element of strategy of when to use your amateur driver throughout the race, as the amateur driver is generally slower than the Pros. The pro drivers in this class range from up and coming talent, former F1 drivers, and some of the best sportscar pilots in the world, and with 24 cars in this class, LMP2 is sure to be a hotbed of action over the 24 hours.

GT class cars are cars that are derived from production models, and feature some of the most iconic cars and brands battling it out at the top of the field. The GTE cars are on the border of aero dependency, and can lap Le Mans in around 3:50
This year, the GTE-Pro entry has been hit significantly by the developments of the Covid-19 situation. Factory backed teams from America, including the Corvette C8.R and the Core-run Porsche GTLM program, have been unable to make the trip, resulting in a three-way tussle between Porsche, Ferrari, and Aston Martin for this year's event. The GTE-Pro class features all-pro line ups, resulting in some of the best drivers in the world racing in some of the most prestigious hardware that racing has to offer.
The GT classes feature a range of different cars and configurations, and to equalise each of these against each other, the class goes through a process called 'Balance of Performance' or BoP. The organisers can adjust each individual car's weight, fuel tank, air restrictor, turbo boost pressures, and aero performance to alter performance levels to enable the different cars to race competitively. This can sometimes be contentious as every team will feel hard done by, but it is a necessary evil to having the variety of cars on the grid.

Like GTE-Pro, GTE-Am features the same GT cars derived from production models. There are two major differences between GTE-Pro and GTE-Am. Firstly, as the name implies, GTE-Am must feature two amateur drivers per car; one rated Silver and the other rated Bronze. Additionally, the specifications of GTE-Am cars are a season behind the GTE-Pro category. While this had a major affect last year, this year all teams have been able to upgrade to the most recent spec machinery released by the manufacturer teams.
With two amateur drivers, all of a sudden the strategy considerations multiply. Additionally, the variety of Pro drivers in this class range from ex-F1 talent to brand new drivers to the Endurance Sportscar scene. While GTE-Am might be the class focussed on the least over the course of the race, the stories that come from this class are phenomenal, and it's well worth following.

Coming from /Formula1? The guys from F1-Editorial put together this info piece so you can see where drivers you might know stack up in this year's field!

The Legends

Part of the allure of the Le Mans 24 Hours is the history, and the legends steeped in history over the course of it's 85 previous editions. The race has had many headline battles in it's history - periods of time where two or three teams went toe to toe for years, with the drivers, cars, and brands embroiled in these battles given the chance to elevate themselves above the rest, and show their prowess.
Last year at /WEC, we’ve taken our normal Le Mans Legends celebrations to a new level; each week, members of the community have been writing reviews on some of the closest, most fascinating finishes in Le Mans history! You can check out these reports below!
Bonus CookieMonsterFL Write-Ups
This year, we've invited you to celebrate some of the Privateer teams that have made this event special. So far we've featured ByKolles, Pescarolo, and Joest, with another one still to come!
The early races were dominated by the Bentley company in their Speed 6, who won 5 of the first 7 races. Cars were separated into classes by their engine displacement, and the overall winner was based on distance covered. If two cars had finished with the same number of laps, the car with the smaller displacement was declared the winner. The race wasn't run during the second world war, and comparatively very little information is available on the stories of the early days of Le Mans.
After the second world war, teams such as Jaguar, Ferrari, Mercedes, and Aston Martin became the dominant teams. This era featured the legendary Jaguar D type, the Mercedes Benz 300 SLR, the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa, and the Aston Martin DBR1. Jaguar won 5 times between 1951 and 1957, followed by an era of Ferrari dominance. Drivers such as Mike Hawthorn, Stirling Moss, Juan Manuel Fangio, and John Fitch became household names as Le Mans became a battle between German engineering and British "garagistas".
Ferrari and Ford was the story of the 60's, with Ferrari winning 6 times straight before Ford won four in a row with the GT40 Mk II, taking their first win in 1966. The story of their rivalry is legendary in it's own right - Henry Ford had almost successfully bought out the Ferrari motor company, only to be knocked back by Enzo himself at the 11th hour. In retaliation, Ford planned to hurt Ferrari where it mattered most; on the track. The Ford GT40 was so comprehensively dominant that it won the 1966 edition 21 laps ahead of the next car back - a Porsche 906/6. None of the Ferrari 330P3's finished the race. This battle gave drivers like Bruce Mclaren, Dan Gurney, and Jacky Ickx their first Le Mans victories, and propelled them to the forefront of motorsport stardom at the height of motorsport's popularity.
The 1970's saw the dawn of Porsche, with the 917k taking the brand's first win in 1970, with the same car winning the following year in the hands of Helmut Marko (yes, that Helmut Marko). It would be 5 years before Porsche would win again, with Maatra taking 3 victories in the interim, each at the hands of Henri Pescarolo. Porsche returned with the 936 and the 956/962c dominating the race for the next 20 years. In fact, from 1970, Porsche won 12 times in 18 events, including 7 in a row, and they miiight have been a bit cheeky about it. Amongst these 12 wins, there were 4 for both Jacky Ickx and Derek Bell, and two for IMSA legend Hurley Haywood, as well as the first win for the Joest team in 1984. This era coincided with the introduction, and subsequent destruction of the Group C sportscar formula, widely regarded as the best Sportscar championship regulations of all time. Porsche’s dominance was eventually ended by Jaguar in the XJR-9LM, at the height of Group C’s magic. Ickx's 6 wins at this stage had earned him the nickname 'Mister Le Mans', a fitting title for one of the best drivers in the world at the time.
GT cars became a force to be reckoned with at the end of the Group C era, with classes being split into LMGTP and LMP. McLaren and Porsche had wins in GTP cars, in the F1 GTR and the 911 GT1 respectively, while Porsche, BMW and Peugeot scored LMP wins. 1997 saw the first win for Tom Kristensen, while the following year Allan McNish took his first victory, starting their journeys into the legend books of Le Mans.
The 2000’s ushered in the era of Audi, with all 13 of their wins coming since the turn of the century. GTP was disbanded due to safety issues, being replaced by GT1 and GT2. Audi picked up wins in the R8, the R10, the R15, and the R18, often dominating the might of the Peugeot 908. Audi's dominance elevated not only their drivers to legend status, but also their team managers, car designers, and race engineers. People like Reinhold Joest (team manager), Dr Wolfgang Ullrich (Audisport director), Ulrich Baretzky (engine designer), Leena Gade, Howden Haynes (race engineers) behind the wall and Allan McNish, Tom Kristensen, Rinaldo Capello, Marcel Fassler, Andre Lotterer and Benoit Treluyer have become household names in the sport not only for their wins, but their longevity and domination. Audi's dominance was only broken by a win for Bentley in 2003, running basically an Audi under a British racing green skin, and Peugeot in 2009, before being ended for good by Porsche in 2015.
Between 2015 and 2017, Porsche added to their victories, now holding a record 19 overall victories at the Circuit de la Sarthe. Audi trail with 13, with Ferrari, Jaguar and Bentley holding the next three positions. Toyota finally took their first overall victory in 2018, and backed it up with another last year. Tom Kristensen is has the most victories at Le Mans, with 9 overall victories over his career with Porsche, Audi and Bentley, inheriting the title of Mr Le Mans.

Videos and Documentaries

Entry List

The 2020 Andy Blackmore's Spotter Guide - Proudly supported by /WEC

This year, /WEC is again sponsoring Andy Blackmore's Le Mans spotters guide. Andy Blackmore has been a long time servant to Le Mans and his spotters guides are second to none in terms of information, presentation, and accuracy. We here at /WEC are proud to feature on the spotters guide, and implore you to show your support by following him @andyblackmore and supporting @AERO_Paint on Twitter!

Endurance Chat

/WEC's podcast, Endurance Chat, will have three episodes in the lead up to Le Mans, as well as a Pre-Pre-Race show in the hours before the event. Watch this space for updates!

Streaming and Television

Martin Haven confirmed that Trackside Broadcast will start 15 minutes before FP2 - No broadcast of FP1 at this stage

  • Official stream OUTSIDE US ONLY - The Le Mans package gives you access to all WEC sessions (Qualifying, Warm Up and the Race) with a choice of on boards, cross platform compatibility, and up to 5 devices connected at once. Additionally, replays of the event are free after the event. Official comms headed by Martin Haven, Allan McNish and Graham Goodwin, who in my personal opinion properly nail the tone of the event. Has been known to get overloaded and crash however
  • Eurosport will be broadcasting the full Le Mans event, including Practice, all Qualifying sessions, Warm Up, and the Race, in most markets with local commentary. Note - In the past, there have been complaints levelled at the tone of the English comms, and bias in commentary in various regions. Luckily, Eurosport does provide a commentary free feed too! Check your local broadcaster for times/streaming
  • Radio Le Mans will be streaming live radio for every session
For American audiences, unfortunately the Official stream is geoblocked for your area. You can catch the race on Motortrend and on the Discovery Velocity channel
Any further updates on TV or Streaming distribution will be added as they are released!

Social Media

If you're looking for more interaction, you can find most of the teams, drivers and commentators on Twitter, giving you instant interaction with those in the midst of the event. We have a twitter list for this year's event thanks to victorycb!

Live timing

Be sure to join the discord for alternate timing solutions!

Get Involved!

By far the most fun you can have watching an endurance race is watching it with the official /WEC Discord! It's a lot of fun and a really great atmosphere to watch the race in!
If you want to have a go at picking who you think will be winning in each class, jump into mwclarkson's Fantasy Endurance Contest! It's free to enter, and if you win, you'll get the satisfaction and achievement of being right!
If there's anything you'd like us to add, or need clarification on, please comment below and we'll add it in!`
submitted by Floodman11 to wec [link] [comments]


2020.09.06 14:40 AB1908 Fact check: Trump was tougher on Russia than the previous administration

You can see my previous fact checks here and here. I've seen an oft repeated claim on /AskTrumpSupporters by a certain user stating the following:
Trump is tougher on Russia than your softball administration ever was (1) (2) (3) (4)
The evidence does not appear to (strongly) support the conclusion. I have attempted to read through all four articles as well as their corresponding citations and I present my findings here. I would also welcome any feedback or corrections in any form. I doubt a limited amount of reading would present a full picture of the scenario.

Analysis of given articles

Article 1

From [1] which, to note, is an op-ed:
For starters, it was President Obama who, according to Reuters, was “caught on camera” saying to a Russian leader that he’ll have more flexibility after the election — not President Trump.
This excerpt cites an article from Reuters [2] and has been mischaracterised as can be seen below:
The exchange, parts of it inaudible, was monitored by a White House pool of television journalists as well as Russian reporters listening live from their press center.
The United States and NATO have offered Russia a role in the project to create an anti-ballistic shield which includes participation by Romania, Poland, Turkey and Spain.
But Moscow says it fears the system could weaken Russia by gaining the capability to shoot down the nuclear missiles it relies on as a deterrent.
It wants a legally binding pledge from the United States that Russia’s nuclear forces would not be targeted by the system and joint control of how it is used.
“This is my last election ... After my election I have more flexibility,” Obama said, expressing confidence that he would win a second term.
Additionally, this was in 2012, during his re-election, much prior to the 2014 annexation of Crimea and thus, is not relevant to the discussion in any way. However, subsequent paragraphs in the article do appear to make accurate claims such as addition of new sanctions that directly penalised President Putin's inner circle and several wealthy individuals. It is also noted that the sanctions from the previous administration remained in place which, although true, aren't exactly helping the point of President Trump's administration being "tougher on Russia".
The following excerpt from the article states that he made even more progress by signing Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, CAATSA, in 2017.
In August 2017, Trump signed a bill slapping even more sanctions on Russia — this time specifically aimed at the country’s energy and defense industries. Congress made the legislation Trump-proof, meaning that no executive order could ever undo such sanctions; yet Trump signed it anyway.
This excerpt cites a piece from CNBC [3] which states the following:
Trump and his secretary of State, Rex Tillerson, had expressed concerns about the sanctions’ possible effects on U.S. relations with Russia. The administration has pushed to improve relations with Moscow but has gotten tripped up by the probe into Russian attempts to affect the election and whether the Trump campaign colluded with the Kremlin.
In a statement after the signing, Trump said he wanted to “punish and deter bad behavior” by North Korea and Iran. The president wanted to make “clear that America will not tolerate interference in our democratic process.”
However, Trump argued that the measure “encroaches on executive power, disadvantages American companies and hurts the interests of our European allies.” Trump needs congressional approval to roll back sanctions under the measure.
This is corroborated by a statement from The White House [4]:
Since this bill was first introduced, I have expressed my concerns to Congress about the many ways it improperly encroaches on Executive power, disadvantages American companies, and hurts the interests of our European allies.
My Administration has attempted to work with Congress to make this bill better. We have made progress and improved the language to give the Treasury Department greater flexibility in granting routine licenses to American businesses, people, and companies. The improved language also reflects feedback from our European allies – who have been steadfast partners on Russia sanctions – regarding the energy sanctions provided for in the legislation. The new language also ensures our agencies can delay sanctions on the intelligence and defense sectors, because those sanctions could negatively affect American companies and those of our allies.
Still, the bill remains seriously flawed – particularly because it encroaches on the executive branch’s authority to negotiate. Congress could not even negotiate a healthcare bill after seven years of talking. By limiting the Executive’s flexibility, this bill makes it harder for the United States to strike good deals for the American people, and will drive China, Russia, and North Korea much closer together. The Framers of our Constitution put foreign affairs in the hands of the President. This bill will prove the wisdom of that choice.
Yet despite its problems, I am signing this bill for the sake of national unity. It represents the will of the American people to see Russia take steps to improve relations with the United States. We hope there will be cooperation between our two countries on major global issues so that these sanctions will no longer be necessary.
Some critics noted that the imposition of sanctions was far too slow as the bill had been signed in August but sanctions were imposed in April. The administration deserves criticism for failing to miss its October 1 deadline of producing a list individuals to be sanctioned but they still deserve credit for the move in its entirety [5].
Here is yet another excerpt:
In fact it was Trump — not Obama — who ordered the closure of Russian diplomatic properties in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and New York City that appeared to be a threat to American security.
This is misleading as it cites a piece by NYT [6] that clearly states the following:
The administration’s response had been expected for the past month, since Russia ordered the American Mission to cut its staff by 755 people — a sign of its displeasure after Congress imposed sanctions because of Russia’s meddling in the 2016 presidential election.
President Trump has kept his distance from the dispute. He expressed gratitude, rather than anger, toward Mr. Putin when was asked about the Russian president’s action to reduce American diplomatic personnel.
“I want to thank him because we’re trying to cut down the payroll,” Mr. Trump said, “and as far as I’m concerned, I’m very thankful that he let go a lot of a large number of people, because now we have a smaller payroll.”
Mr. Putin’s move was also a delayed reaction to President Barack Obama’s expulsion of 35 Russian diplomats and his seizure of two Russian diplomatic compounds last year. Mr. Obama was acting after American intelligence agencies concluded that Russia attempted to influence the 2016 election. The administration said there was no decision on whether the Russian government would be allowed to take back those facilities.
The rest of the article seems to be fairly accurate except for engaging in a hypothetical in the following excerpt:
To be sure, Obama kicked 35 Russian diplomats out of the country after suspected election meddling by Russia, but only after Trump won the 2016 election. It is questionable whether he would have done so had Hillary Clinton succeeded in being the victor.
and making the following misleading claim:
Furthermore, it was President Trump who led the world in expelling Russian diplomats after the Russian government was suspected of carrying out a nerve agent attack in the United Kingdom against one of their former spies. President Trump moved swiftly to expel 60 Russian diplomats from U.S. soil, and other countries followed suit by expelling dozens as well.
As evidenced by the Reuters article cited in the above excerpt, the administration actually joined other countries instead with Australia joining in later [7]. However, it may have been referring to the claim that it was expelling the highest number of diplomats, in which case it would be accurate but again, not noteworthy as it likely has the highest number of diplomats of all nations involved [citation needed]. The article, however, goes on to note that he had expressed sentiments earlier of wanting to work together. To quote:
Trump, who before he took office in January last year promised warmer ties with Putin, last week congratulated the Russian leader on his re-election, drawing criticism from Republicans and Democrats alike. Trump said the two leaders had made tentative plans to meet in the “not too distant future”.
He did not bring up the poisoning attack in his phone call with Putin.
Trump himself was silent on Monday on Twitter, where he often comments about his policy decisions. However, the White House said later it would like to have a “cooperative relationship” with Russia.
“The president wants to work with the Russians but their actions sometimes don’t allow that to happen,” White House spokesman Raj Shah told a news briefing. “The poisoning in the U.K. that has kind of led to today’s announcement was a very brazen action. It was a reckless action.”
Overall, the article does have some valid points regarding the sanctions but a thorough analysis of its effects are required before we can objectively conclude it has been "tough on Russia". A report from the Congressional Research Service may prove useful for said analysis. Still, I would say this does appear to support the claim of the President being "tough on Russia" but whether it was "tougher than your previous softball administration" remains to be examined.

Article 2

The Washington Post op-ed by Sen. Dan Sullivan (R-AK) [8] also appears to make a few misleading claims. With regards to the Pentagon budget:
More broadly, under Obama, the Pentagon’s budget was slashed by 25 percent from 2010 to 2016.
This cites a report by the Heritage Foundation [9] that states the following:
In total, since FY 2010, the defense budget, including overseas contingency operations (OCO) spending, has been cut 25 percent in inflation-adjusted dollars.[10]
FY 2010 and FY 2011. While the FY 2010 budget slightly increased the defense budget, the department began cancelling major programs that year. For the FY 2010 budget, the department announced:
  • Cancellation of the F-22 Raptor fighter aircraft;
  • Cancellation of the VH-71 presidential helicopter;
  • Cancellation of the vehicle portion of the Future Combat System;
  • Cancellation of missile defense programs, including the Airborne Laser and the Multi-Kill Vehicle;
  • Cancellation of the CSAR-X search and rescue helicopter; and
  • The end of C-17 Globemaster III military transport production at 205 aircraft.[11]
In FY 2011, the cuts focused on modernization spending:
  • Ending C-17 production at 223. (Congress blocked the first attempt.)
  • Cancelling the F-35 alternate engine program.
  • Cancelling the CG(X) future large cruiser.
  • Cancelling the Navy’s EP-X future intelligence aircraft.[12]
In some cases, these cuts were necessary because the program requirements were not a high priority or because the program was too costly. On the other hand, other cancellations have led to serious problems for the military today.
Note that this is also somewhat contentious as this is fails to take into account the fact that the (then) administration started pulling out of Iraq and was also bipartisan, as stated in a fact check by Politifact [10]:
Has the military budget dropped under Obama, and if so, who is to blame?
Overall spending on national security includes the Pentagon budget as well as spending by other agencies, such as the Energy Department’s work on nuclear weapons. Spending increased in 2010 and 2011, but it has fallen every year for four years since then by a cumulative 15 percent.
Other ways of looking at the question show declines as well. National security spending made up 20.1 percent of the federal budget in 2010, but in 2015 it was 15.9 percent. Over the same period, spending fell from 4.6 percent of gross domestic product to 3.3 percent.
There are two main reasons for the spending drop. The first is the Obama administration’s decision to start removing U.S. troops from Iraq and Afghanistan. The second has to do with a process known as sequestration.
Sequestration refers to the framework for automatic, across-the-board cuts to both military and non-military spending that were originally designed to force bipartisan negotiators in Congress to strike a deal in 2011. When negotiations fell apart, the cuts went into effect.
The bipartisan nature of the sequestration provision means that both parties merit a share of the blame, experts say.
The most recent Obama budget proposed a 7.8 percent increase in the base Defense Department budget between 2015 and 2016. The spending bill enacted this fall puts the defense budget on a path to start growing in fiscal year 2016, up about 6 percent from the previous year.
"It’s still not quite as much as the president requested, but it’s much closer," said Todd Harrison, director of defense budget analysis at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Another claim made is the following:
After Russia invaded Ukraine in 2014, Ukrainian leaders desperately requested from President Barack Obama defensive anti-tank weapons systems that could fend off the invading Russian T-72 tanks in eastern Ukraine. In 2015, members of the Senate Armed Services Committee — Democrats and Republicans — encouraged Obama to grant this request to help Ukraine defend itself. Obama refused. Soon after coming into office, Trump changed course , and the Ukrainians now have Javelin anti-tank weapons systems from the United States. Russian tank drivers have a lot more to worry about today.
The initial sentence cites a report from Foreign Policy [11] that corroborates the statement that T-72 tanks were invading eastern Ukraine but they were controlled by separatists and appear to have had some ties to Russia in the form of funding. It is very slightly misleading to call them "Russian" forces. To quote:
Fighting has not stopped, and the rebels have continued to retake territory. The Russian military took advantage of the deals and continued to supply weapons and troops to the separatists, and this conflict is not any closer to resolution than it was before the deals were signed. On the other hand, each carried with it at least a temporary de-escalation in fighting, bringing needed reprieve for civilians who have been stuck in the crossfire.
The claim of President Obama denying anti-tank weapons is also correct as corroborated in an article by the AP [12]. However, the overall claim is misleading. His administration actually refused to provide lethal weaponry for fear of escalating conflict and instead relied on non-lethal aid. To quote from the USA Today article [13] also cited in the excerpt:
The White House refused to include weapons in an aid package announced Thursday for embattled Ukraine despite an impassioned plea by Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko for more military assistance.
The Obama administration is providing $46 million in non-lethal security assistance and $7 million for relief organizations providing humanitarian assistance to Ukrainians affected by the conflict between government forces and Russian-backed separatists in the eastern region.
The White House announcement came shortly after Poroshenko stood before a joint session of Congress and pleaded for more political support and military equipment beyond the non-lethal aid the United States has pledged.
Poroshenko said blankets and night-vision goggles from the USA are important, "but one cannot win a war with blankets!"
What the White House offered was a military aid package that will provide body armor, helmets, vehicles, night and thermal vision devices, advanced radios, patrol boats, counter-mortar radars, rations, tents and uniforms. U.S. military and civilian advisers will help Ukraine improve its defense capacity, the White House said.
The new aid brings the total U.S. assistance package for Ukraine to $291 million, plus a $1 billion loan guarantee. The Obama administration has refused to provide lethal aid for fear of escalating tensions.
This is further corroborated in a fact check by PolitiFact [14], an article which I would recommend reading in its entirety. Here are some relevant excerpts:
At the time, Obama officials were debating whether to send lethal military equipment amid the conflict with Russia, particularly Javelin anti-tank missiles. Obama rejected a request from Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko for lethal aid in 2014, though the White House approved a $53 million aid package that included vehicles, patrol boats, body armor and night-vision goggles, as well as humanitarian assistance.
U.S. officials were concerned that providing the Javelins to Ukraine would escalate their conflict with Russia. Key allies, including Germany, were not keen on sending weapons into the conflict zone, said Michael Kofman, an expert on Russia and senior research scientist at the CNA Corporation.
Under Obama, the federal government started the Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative, which sent other kinds of U.S. military equipment to the country. From 2016 to 2019, Congress appropriated $850 million.
In the last year of the Obama administration, Congress authorized lethal aid, but it didn’t include the Javelins.
"The first lethal deliveries came from Trump," said Jim Townsend, deputy assistant secretary of defense for European and NATO Policy during the Obama administration.
In July 2016, the White House announced a $335 million security assistance package for Ukraine that included "counter-artillery and counter-mortar radars, secure communications, training aids, logistics infrastructure and IT systems, tactical UAVs, and medical equipment."
In 2017, the Trump administration said it would sell lethal aid to Ukraine, and in 2018 it approved a plan to sell Ukraine $47 million in lethal Javelin Missiles. Even though the Trump administration has allowed the weapons, they are far from the frontlines.
Congress approved another $250 million in military assistance in 2018, which Trump temporarily withheld along with $141 million in State Department aid in July.
Overall, the article does very little to support the claim that President Trump has been tougher on Russia than his predecessor. It is somewhat misleading, tries to conflate numbers so as to make them look favorable and does not produce concrete evidence to support the claim. There is also the issue of witholding aid from Ukraine despite pledging support in terms of lethal weaponry. However, credit should still be awarded for continuing to provide assistance to them. Note that being pro-Ukraine isn't necessarily anti-Russia, so this is poorly supportive of the claim at best.

Article 3

The third article linked mostly goes on to state the several actions taken by the current administration without providing much context or history behind the moves but is still a decent source [15]. It was subsequently cited in the NPR article on President Trump's actions against Russia. It can be said that he has a decent stance against Russia.

Article 4

The fourth article from NPR [16] weighs the President's rhetoric versus his policies. It notes that his policies have largely been in the right direction as noted in the opening:
President Trump is in the process of inviting Russian President Vladimir Putin to come to Washington, D.C., this fall to continue the talks they started in Helsinki earlier this week.
It's another sign of Trump's efforts to build closer ties with Moscow, even though he insists his administration has taken a hard line toward Russia.
"There's never been a president as tough on Russia as I have been," Trump told reporters on Wednesday.
That might sound like hyperbole, but in this case, there's actually some basis for the president's boast.
After describing a list of actions taken, it then notes:
Whatever tough policies the White House may have adopted toward Moscow also have to be weighed against Trump's rhetoric, which is consistently friendly to Putin. He suggested inviting Russia to rejoin the G-7, a group Moscow was suspended from following the illegal annexation of Crimea. Trump also congratulated Putin on his suspect re-election victory, despite explicit instructions from his advisers.
"There's a real disconnect between the president's words and the underlying policy," said Richard Fontaine, president of the Center for a New American Security.
While Trump has no qualms about criticizing leaders of allied countries like Germany's Angela Merkel, Canada's Justin Trudeau or the U.K.'s Theresa May, he almost always treats Putin with kid gloves.
"The president very rarely speaks about Putin's transgressions and when asked about them expresses the hope that everyone can get along," said Fontaine, a former national security adviser to Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz.
Just last week, Trump told reporters in the U.K., "If we could develop a relationship which is good for Russia, good for us, good for everybody, that would be great."
The article goes on to cite a report from The Washington Post detailing the President's attitude in private [17]:
The United States, they explained, would be ousting roughly the same number of Russians as its European allies — part of a coordinated move to punish Moscow for the poisoning of a former Russian spy and his daughter on British soil.
“We’ll match their numbers,” Trump instructed, according to a senior administration official. “We’re not taking the lead. We’re matching.”
The next day, when the expulsions were announced publicly, Trump erupted, officials said. To his shock and dismay, France and Germany were each expelling only four Russian officials — far fewer than the 60 his administration had decided on.
The president, who seemed to believe that other individual countries would largely equal the United States, was furious that his administration was being portrayed in the media as taking by far the toughest stance on Russia.
His briefers tried to reassure him that the sum total of European expulsions was roughly the same as the U.S. number.
“I don’t care about the total!” the administration official recalled Trump screaming. The official, like others, spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss internal deliberations.
Growing angrier, Trump insisted that his aides had misled him about the magnitude of the expulsions. “There were curse words,” the official said, “a lot of curse words.”
The incident reflects a tension at the core of the Trump administration’s increasingly hard-nosed stance on Russia: The president instinctually opposes many of the punitive measures pushed by his Cabinet that have crippled his ability to forge a close relationship with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Some close to Trump say the recent measures are the product of an ongoing pressure campaign to push the president to take a more skeptical view of the Russian leader.
“If you’re getting briefed by the CIA director on all this stuff, there’s a point where, even if you’re Donald J. Trump, you think, ‘Hmm [Putin’s] a really bad guy,’ ” said former House speaker Newt Gingrich, an informal Trump adviser.
Others note Trump’s ongoing unease with his own policy. Even as his administration has ratcheted up the pressure on Putin’s inner circle, Trump has continued in recent weeks to make overtures to the Russian leader, congratulating him on his election win and, in a move that frustrated his national security team, inviting him to visit the White House.
“I think I could have a very good relationship with Russia and with President Putin,” Trump said at a news conference just days after the largest expulsion of Russians in U.S. history. “And if I did, that would be a great thing. And there’s also a possibility that won’t happen. Who knows?”
Trump came to the White House believing that his personal relationships with other leaders would be central to solving the world’s thorniest foreign policy problems, administration officials said. In Trump’s mind, no leader was more important or powerful than Putin, they said.
A cooperative relationship with the Russian leader could help Trump find solutions to problems that bedeviled his predecessor in places such as Ukraine, Syria and North Korea.
Former president Barack Obama had a tense relationship with Putin. Trump said he could do better but felt stymied by the media, Congress and special counsel Robert S. Mueller III’s probe into Russia’s interference in the 2016 election.
Any conciliatory move he made toward Putin came under heavy scrutiny. “When will all the haters and fools out there realize that having a good relationship is a good thing,” Trump tweeted in November. “They are always playing politics — bad for our country.”
Privately, he complained to aides that the media’s fixation on the Mueller probe was hobbling his effort to woo Putin. “I can’t put on the charm,” the president often said, according to one of his advisers. “I’m not able to be president because of this witch hunt.”
As the months passed, the president’s options for improving relations with Russia narrowed. In late July, Congress overwhelmingly approved new sanctions on Moscow that were widely seen as a rebuke of Trump’s efforts to reach out to Putin. It took aides four days to persuade Trump to sign the bill, which had cleared with a veto-proof majority.
Trump advisers were reluctant to even raise the topic of Russian interference in the election, which Trump equated with Democrats’ efforts to undermine his victory. “It’s just kind of its own beast,” a senior national security official said. “It’s been a constant from Day One.”
Gingrich and other Trump advisers said CIA Director Mike Pompeo, the secretary of state nominee, was one of the few advisers who could address Russia without raising the president’s ire.
In January, Pompeo told the BBC that he had “every expectation” that Russia would make an effort to disrupt the 2018 midterm elections. Privately, he pushed Trump to take a tough line on Moscow.
One area where aides worked to change Trump’s mind was on a proposal to sell antitank missiles to Ukraine. Obama had opposed the move for fear of angering Moscow and provoking a Russian escalation.
Trump initially was also hesitant to support the move, which had the backing of the Pentagon and State Department. “He would say, ‘Why is this our problem? Why not let the Europeans deal with Ukraine?” a U.S. official said.
Aides described a lobbying effort by Pompeo, Haley and Defense Secretary Jim Mattis in support of the lethal aid. “I just want peace,” Trump would say when pressed on Ukraine.
His aides countered that the weapons would help achieve peace by deterring further Russian aggression.
To bring the president around, U.S. officials argued that the $47 million military aid package could be a boon to U.S. taxpayers if cash-strapped Kiev stabilized and someday became a reliable buyer of American military hardware.
To the surprise of even his closest advisers, the president agreed late last year to the weapons transfer on the condition that the move be kept quiet and made without a formal news release.
Aides tried to warn him that there was almost no way to stop the news from leaking.
When it broke, Russia hawks in Congress praised the president. “Another significant step in the right direction,” said Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), a frequent Trump critic. But Trump was still furious, an administration official said.
“For some reason, when it comes to Russia, he doesn’t hear the praise,” a senior administration official said. “Politically speaking, the best thing for him to do is to be tough. . . . On that one issue, he cannot hear the praise.”
The poisoning in Britain in early March of former Russian spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter, Yulia, with a nerve agent upped the tension between Trump and his advisers.
Initially, the president was hesitant to believe the intelligence that Russia was behind the attack — a fact that some aides attributed to his contrarian personality and tendency to look for deeper conspiracies. To persuade him, his advisers warned that he would get hammered in the press if he was out of step with U.S. allies, officials said.
“There was a sense that we couldn’t be the only ones not to concede to reality,” the Trump adviser said.
The next task was convincing Trump that he should punish Putin in coordination with the Europeans. “Why are you asking me to do this?” Trump asked in a call with British Prime Minister Theresa May, according to a senior White House official. “What’s Germany going to do? What about France?”
He was insistent that the poisoning in the English city of Salisbury was largely a European problem and that the allies should take the lead in moving against Russia.
Trump told aides in an Oval Office session on March 23 that he was confident French President Emmanuel Macron would deliver on promises to expel Russian officials but that he was worried about German Chancellor Angela Merkel, whose country depends on Russian oil and gas.
The next day, at his Mar-a-Lago resort, Trump’s aides gave him the final memo with the precise number of American expulsions.
Trump was furious as news reports described the expulsions as the largest purge in U.S. history and noted the wide gap between the United States and its allies. “If you had told me France and Germany were only doing [four], that’s what we would have done,” one official recalled him saying.
Some officials said it was a simple misunderstanding. Others blamed the president’s strained relationship with his top aides, including H.R. McMaster, his former national security adviser.
“Anytime McMaster came in with a recommendation, he always thought it was too much,” the Trump adviser said. “They were just oil and water on everything. So his natural impulse was, if this was your recommendation, it must be too far.”
Less than a month after Trump shocked his foreign policy advisers by inviting Putin to the White House, the prospects for a visit anytime soon seem remote. No date has been set, White House officials said.
“We’re not rushing to do this meeting,” a senior administration official said. “Our team wasn’t thrilled about the idea.”
The report certainly paints an unflattering picture of the President's attitude towards Russia but the NPR report concludes the following:
However grudging Trump's moves against Moscow might have been, though, his defenders say the actions speak for themselves.
"It is hard for me to believe that he was dragged kicking and screaming through each and every one of these decisions," Vajdich said.

Counter Analysis and Evidence

Overall, from the evidence presented, we can safely say that the policies certainly do appear to be a step in the right direction but they have done little to deter Russia. Crimea is still occupied and military operations against Ukraine have expanded to nearby waters [18]:
Debates about the effectiveness of sanctions against Russia continue in Congress, in the Administration, and among other stakeholders. Russia has not reversed its occupation and annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea region, nor has it stopped sustaining separatist regimesin eastern Ukraine. In 2018, it extended its military operations against Ukraine to nearby waters. At the same time, Russia has not expanded its land-based operations in Ukraine, and Moscow participates in a conflict resolution process that formally recognizes Ukraine’s sovereignty over Russia-controlled areas in eastern Ukraine. With respect to other malign activities, the relationship between sanctions and changes in Russian behavior is difficult to determine. Nonetheless, many observers argue that sanctions help restrain Russia or that their imposition is an appropriate foreign policy response regardless of immediate effect.
Examining his record outside the data presented, however, paints a different picture. For example, he failed to bring up Russian interference in election during early talks in 2017, despite overwhelming evidence produced from multiple intelligence agencies [19]. Notably, in 2018 in Helsinki, he cast doubt on Russia's role in the interference, putting forth a "both sides" narrative on both US Intelligence and Vladimir Putin. To quote the interview published in a fact check by FactCheck.org [20]:
Reporter, July 16: Just now, President Putin denied having anything to do with the election interference in 2016. Every U.S. intelligence agency has concluded that Russia did. What — who — my first question for you, sir, is who do you believe? My second question is would you now, with the whole world watching, tell President Putin, would you denounce what happened in 2016 and would you warn him to never do it again?
Trump: So let me just say that we have two thoughts. You have groups that are wondering why the FBI never took the server. Why haven’t they taken the server? Why was the FBI told to leave the office of the Democratic National Committee?
I’ve been wondering that, I’ve been asking that for months and months and I’ve been tweeting it out and calling it out on social media. Where is the server? I want to know where is the server and what is the server saying?
With that being said, all I can do is ask the question. My people came to me, [Director of National Intelligence] Dan Coates came to me and some others, they said they think it’s Russia. I have President Putin; he just said it’s not Russia. I will say this: I don’t see any reason why it would be. But I really do want to see the server.
But I have — I have confidence in both parties. I — I really believe that this will probably go on for a while, but I don’t think it can go on without finding out what happened to the server. What happened to the servers of the Pakistani gentleman that worked on the DNC? Where are those servers? They’re missing; where are they? What happened to Hillary Clinton’s e-mails? 33,000 e-mails gone — just gone. I think in Russia they wouldn’t be gone so easily. I think it’s a disgrace that we can’t get Hillary Clinton’s 33,000 e-mails.
I have great confidence in my intelligence people but I will tell you that President Putin was extremely strong and powerful in his denial today and what he did is an incredible offer. He offered to have the people working on the case come and work with their investigators, with respect to the 12 people. I think that’s an incredible offer. Ok? Thank you.
Further, he also pushed for Russia to be included in the G7 Summit, much to the disapproval of other member nations. In an article from Reuters [21]:
Trump over the weekend had raised the prospect of expanding the G7, whose members are the world’s most advanced economies, to once again include Russia, which had been expelled in 2014 following Moscow’s annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea region.

Final Conclusion

All these events, combined with the indictment of his campaign officials certainly cast doubt over the "tough on Russia" claim. The claim of being "even harder than the previous administration" becomes even more outrageous, especially since relations were already strained during the previous administration and Russia was not as aggressive in its operations. I would therefore have to reject the claim of "Trump was tougher on Russia than the previous administration" and label it as somewhat true but still disputable at best if considering only policies and not personal actions, as Russia's aggressions warranted action regardless of the sitting President, and false at worst when considering the broader picture.

Potential Improvements

The actions of the Trump administration with regards to Syria and Iran have not been examined. Further, there are additional ties that the President seems to have to Russian oligarchs but they have been left out in the interest of examining the evidence presented. The report on the sanctions by the Congressional Research Service has also not been thoroughly read and thus, its findings have been left out at the time of writing.
submitted by AB1908 to RussiaLago [link] [comments]


2020.09.06 03:45 whyme1924 Sources to Counter Common Transphobia

Classification as a Mental Illness

Being trans is not classified as a mental illness by either the American Psychological Association or the World Health Organization. Gender dysphoria or incongruence is recognized by both as a medical condition, and transition is the only treatment recognized as effective and appropriate medical response to this condition. A trans person who has completed transition, and who no longer experiences distress because the conditions previously causing it have been corrected, is no longer diagnosed as having dypshoria or incongruence.
Transgender no longer recognised as 'disorder' by WHO

Citations for the Medical Basis of Gender Identity

Citations for the Medical Necessity of Transition

Citations for the Reduction in Suicide Rates

There are a lot of studies showing that transition improves mental health and quality of life while reducing dysphoria. Not to mention this 2010 meta-analysis of 28 different studies, which found that transition is extremely effective at reducing dysphoria and improving quality of life.

Countering That Swedish "Suicide Study"

the 40% suicide rate is a reference to this study by Dr. Dhejne. The claim that her study shows that transition does not reduce risk of suicide attempts while improving mental health and quality of life is a deliberate misrepresentation popularized by Paul McHugh, a religious extremist and leading member of an anti-gay and anti-trans hate group, who presents himself as a reputable source but publishes work without peer review. His claim to fame is having shut down the Johns Hopkins trans health program in the 70's, which he did not based on medical evidence but on his personal ideological opposition to transition. Johns Hopkins has resumed offering transition related medical care, including reconstructive surgery, and their faculty are finally disavowing him for his irresponsible and ideologically motivated misrepresentation of the current science of sex and gender.
That study's lead author Dr. Dhejne had emphatically denounced McHugh and his misuse of her work. If for those who don't trust the TransAdvocate article, she did so again in her Science AMA last year.
Edit: Details on Dr. Dhejne's often misrepresented study - it found only that trans people who transitioned prior to 1989had slightly higher risk of suicide attempts than the general public. The author attributed this higher risk to the vicious anti-trans discrimination people who transitioned 29+ years ago experienced. The study found no difference in the risk of suicide attempts among trans people who transitioned after 1989, vs the general public.
She is also the primary author the other study I posted below, An analysis of all applications for sex reassignment surgery in Sweden, 1960-2010: prevalence, incidence, and regrets, which found a "regret" rate of 2.2%

Countering Claims of Widespread Transition Regret

This 1% "regret" rate also includes a lot of people who are very happy they transitioned, and continue to live as a gender other than the one they were assigned at birth, but regret that medical error or shitty luck led to low quality surgical results.
This is a risk in any reconstructive surgery, and a success rate of about 99% is astonishingly good for any medical treatment. And "regret" rates have been going down for decades, as surgical methods improve.

Countering Claims that Puberty Blockers are Harmful

There is extensive research about long term use of puberty blockers, and they have overwhelmingly been shown to be very gentle and safe.
This treatment isn't just used for trans youth - it has been the standard treatment for kids with precocious puberty for decades. Most kids with precocious puberty don't have any underlying medical condition, their early development is just an extreme variation of normal development, but it would still cause serious psychological damage to start puberty at the age of, say, 6. This treatment has no long term side effects; it just puts puberty on hold. Stop treatment, and puberty picks up where it left off.

Countering Claims that Trans People Didn't Historically Exist

And while until recently there has been no place in modern US/European culture for people with gender identities and lives atypical to their sex at birth to exist publicly, that isn't true in other times and cultures. Throughout the middle east and Asia there have been Hijra visible in public life for hundreds or even thousands of years. The same is true of Kathoey in Thailand, Muxe in Zapotec culture in Mexico, various two-spirit identities found in indigenous American cultures, Māhū in traditional Hawaiian/Tahitian/Maohi cultures, the Fa'afafine of Samoa, Tongan Fakaleiti, the Sworn Virgins of the Balkans, the Galli of Ancient Rome, etc.
And of course, humans are not the only animals. While we can't interview animals, and gender identity is harder to identify visually in animals than something like same-gender sexual activity is, we sure as hell have observed a lot of animals displaying instinctive behavior typically associated with the other sex. And there very certainly is evidenceof congenital, neurologically based sexually specific behavior in animals.

Condemnations of "Conversion Therapy"

submitted by whyme1924 to alltheleft [link] [comments]


2020.09.05 12:40 nstav13 [Spoilers] The United States and Westward Expansion - Common Setting Discussions

A common trait Assassin’s Creed groups have is the constant theorizing about future settings, because historical tourism is one of the best parts of the series. This series of posts will act as a counter to my Mildly Obscure setting discussions, but rather than looking at a single point, I will be taking a broad setting that is popular and looking at several potential settings to explore within it. Today’s setting is the United States. I want to say that I personally am not a huge fan of the setting, and like WW2, worry about whether or not Ubisoft could actually tactfully do these settings, but due to the lore potential, I’m willing to discuss them. Most of these settings would suffer from issues that plagued Syndicate such as proximity to the modern-day causing fake events and characters to be made to avoid lawsuits, parkour issues from wide streets and small buildings, or painfully tall buildings, and poor weapon variety due to legal carrying restrictions.

Shays’ Rebellion
The American Revolution had a heavy toll on thousands of soldiers. Besides the loss of life and injuries, many men never received their full pay. In the early 1780s, this started to become a major issue, as men returning home from warlike Daniel Shay were being asked to pay large debts and taxes that they couldn’t afford because of the lack of pay. Many protests were held in Massachusetts from 1782 to 1785 against these taxes and to get the pay the veterans had earned. In August 1786, protestors organized to begin forcefully shutting down the courts. Government officials denounced the mob mentality but did nothing to stop it. Daniel Shays would start to organize more of these shutdowns and lead about 300 men to the Springfield Courts, which were then protected by William Shepard who held about 800 men at his command. After a day of demonstrations with no violence, Shepard led his men to the Springfield Armory due to rumors of the mob planning to attack it. By October of 1786 more protests had successfully shut down courts in Taunton, Great Barrington, and Concord. State officials now feared the violence and the potential for civil war and Samuel Adams worked with the state officials to draft a riot act to suspend habeas corpus and imprison the rioters without a trial while advocating for the execution of anyone who tried to rebel against the republic. With the new legislation in place, several of the movement’s leaders were arrested in eastern Massachusetts, causing 4,000 men to form an open rebellion against the “tyrannical state”.
The open rebellion caused Benjamin Lincoln to be granted money to form a militia and march west on January 19th. By that point, Shepard had amassed a local militia of 1200 men at the Springfield Federal Armory (a place he was not technically legally allowed to defend as a local militia)and Daniel Shays had coordinated with Luke Day to advance on the federal armory. Due to correspondence being stopped by Shepard’s men, Shays didn’t know Day was running late by a day and arrived at the armory on January 25th with no support from the west. Shepard had 2 cannons fired as a warning shot which scattered Shays forces. General Lincoln managed to track the army down to Pelham on the 4th of February during a snowstorm and capture about 150 men. Shay went into hiding as Lincoln’s army melted away from lack of funding. By the end of February, the 3000 man army dwindled to less than 200, and during that time a force of 200 men regrouped to attack Stockbridge on early February 27th. The remaining army eventually caught up with them in the night at Sheffield leading to the bloodiest battle of the rebellion with over 30 men killed, and 150 captured. Shays’ Rebellion was ultimately a failure, but it had a large impact on the creation of the modern US constitution and the creation of a standing army. I also think it may be interesting if Shay Cormac had taken the name Daniel Shays during the Revolutionary War to act as a Templar mole searching for the Piece of Eden George Washington would find and that the “little revolution” he referenced at the end of Rogue was not the French Revolution, but him orchestrating Shays’ Rebellion against the new republic that the Templars largely fought against. Daniel Shays would eventually die in 1825, and while Shay would be very old by that point, it would make sense to be that late due to Shay’s relationship with his grandson Cudgel.

War of 1812
America’s relationship with Britain continued to strain during the years following the Revolutionary War. Britain used its colonies in Canada to give supplies and aid to Native American tribes with the intent of those tribes attacking American settlers. By 1805 a confederation of Native Americans formed in the great lakes and would actively kill any European-American settlers. Leading this was Tecumseh who was the brother of the original mastermind of the confederation. This conflict would lead the American government to lead the Battle of Tippecanoe against Tecumseh in 1811, and hostilities only increased from there. During the Napoleonic Wars, Britain set up large blockades of ports to stop Americans from trading with the French. While enforcing this, British ships had killed dozens of Americans and impressed even more into service. On June 1st, 1812, President James Madison sent Congress a list of grievances the United States had with Britain, and 4 days later, Congress voted to declare war for the first time.
The first stage of the war primarily took place in the North East US and Canada. I’d personally say that this should be the bulk of the main map with cities like Baltimore, Detroit, Philadelphia, Washington DC, Montreal, Toronto, and Quebec. And then we could see the other primary theatres as smaller self-contained maps. William Hull initially led the charge into Canada in early July of 1812, only to be chased back out by Shawnee natives combined with forces of the British Major General Isaac Brock who then laid siege to Detroit in August. Following Hull’s defeat, General William Henry Harrison took control of the American Armies and led them to victory in several battles around the Great Lakes, primarily against the Tecumseh Confederacy. On October 5th, 1813, Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames. The next year was a constant back and forth between Americans and British fighting over forts along the Canada-US border with several notable sieges at York (Toronto), Niagra, Fort Erie, and Plattsburgh. To the west, a series of battles were fought from 1812 to 1814 along the Mississippi River reaching down to St Louis.
The east coast of the US saw a lot of action during the war. Starting in 1812, the British set up a series of blockades around the US. The blockade ended up serving as a large way for Black Refugees to escape slavery and get to Canada where they’d be freed. It also gave partial control of the Chesapeake Bay, and despite attempts to fortify the Potomac River in 1813, by 1814 the British freed of the Napoleonic Wars sent more ships to the war in America, breaking through the fortifications. Their first major attack was the Burning of Washington DC in response to the Battle of York (Toronto) a year prior. The British then went north and led a land and naval battle at Baltimore (the naval bombardment of Baltimore was partially what inspired the lyrics of the Star-Spangled Banner). During the battle, the British General Ross was killed, leaving command to Colonel Arthur Brooke who after finishing the battle, commanded his troops and ships to New Orleans.
The Creek War was the southernmost war partially influenced by Tecumseh’s Confederacy. The Lower Creeks in Alabama had been trading partners for the US and Settlers, adopting many of their cultural practices, while the Upper Creeks controlled the rivers and were concerned about the loss of the culture and lifestyle to encroaching US settlers. Over the course of 2 years, General Andrew Jackson would lead US and Lower Creek troops against the Upper Creeks and ultimately gained 21 million acres for the US in what is now Alabama and Georgia. During this American General James Wilkinson took the city of Mobile and part of western Spanish Florida. At the end of 1814 and January of 1815, the British would lead multiple offenses against New Orleans and Mobile, losing each time. By that point, both the Americans and the British had sent delegates to Ghent to negotiate a stalemate. On December 24th the Treaty of Ghent was signed, but it wouldn’t be until February that the news reached America and the fighting ceased. The most lore we have is that every presidency was contested between Assassins and Templars and the first Templar President was Franklin D. Roosevelt. I do really like this period for opening up the capability of expanding Connor’s Story, tying up Shay, maybe meet Shay’s son. There’s a ton of lore possibilities here. We also know that the apple Connor dropped in the ocean was retrieved by the 20th century, so it’s possible that part of the heavy naval portion of this war and blockade was a British effort to search for the apple.

Mexican-American War
In 1836 the Texas Revolution saw Texas freed from Mexico to the chagrin of Santa Anna, the sitting Mexican President. 9 years later, the Texas Republic continued to face threats from Mexico which did not view them as sovereign; the United States, as a result, annexed Texas. Texas, however, still claimed more land than it owned, and Mexico refused to recognize this, leading to American President James K. Polk to send an emissary to Mexico City to negotiate to buy land on good faith while also sending American troops over the border with the intention of provoking an armed military response. It did, and after American troops were fired upon at Palo Alto, America declared the Mexican-American War on May 13th, 1846. The war itself was largely controversial, including Abraham Lincoln; and many northern abolitionists saw it as a way to strengthen slavery in the south.
The first campaign of the war was to capture what became New Mexico. Santa Fe was captured by August of 1846 but rebels in the area led small assaults and raids for another year until the Battle of Cienega Creek. Following this, General Kearny marched his troops across the Sonoran Desert to California. It took 3 months for news of the war to originally reach California, and when it did, American troops planted flags in San Francisco. American armies would lead several battles just outside San Diego and Los Angeles, with small rebels popping up near San Francisco, but California was largely conquered by January of 1847.
Throughout 1846 troops marched from San Antonio and Corpus Christi to be met with battles in Monterrey and Buena Vista. By March 9th, 1847 General Scott was ordered to bring the war to a close by President Polk by capturing Mexico City. Commodore Matthew C Perry arrived at Veracruz on March 24th and opened it up with a naval bombardment. Despite several soldiers coming down with Yellow Fever during the 12-day siege, General Scott pushed on to Puebla and then Mexico City with Santa Anna expecting the diseases to wipe out the army. After a stop at Puebla due to the sick, Scott marched on to the Battle for Mexico City, a week-long series of battles that left Scott the military governor of the city on September 15th, 1847. Santa Anna then attempted to besiege Puebla but failed due to the Battle of Huamantla lifting the siege in early October. Following the defeat, a new Mexican Government led by Manuel de la Pena y Pena ceded over military control from Santa Anna to General Jose Joaquin de Herrera. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2nd, 1848, with nearly 339 million acres of land given to the United States while the US paid $15 million dollars (approximately 5 cents per acre). Once again there’s next to no lore in this area, and we could see Shay’s son or Grandson be active during the war. That said, the United States was extremely aggressive during the war, and making assassins allied with either the US or Mexico could feel somewhat forced, as this was ultimately two countries fighting over land.

The Civil War
I personally don’t wish to discuss this setting too much, as I don’t believe Ubisoft could actually do this setting well, especially with the current lore. First of all, is the reasoning for the war. States' rights were ultimately the reason for southern secession; and slavery was the biggest of those concerns, and many smaller concerns revolved around slavery. Northern abolitionists had been sending over voters to commit voting fraud and try to force states below the Mason-Dixon line to not allow slavery. The Northern states refused to follow the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, multiple states were displeased with high federal spending, they had issues with the regulation of the banks which hurt southern states more than northern, Northern States ruled congress due to population density, and there were many questions about how the south would survive economically if slavery was abolished. While we all agree in the modern-day that slavery is wrong (and our assassin character should agree), people did not historically hold that view. And to be fair to their fears, following the civil war the southern economy did crash, affecting more than the 1% of land-owning slave owners. Even the now freed blacks had nowhere to go or anything to do because they spent their entire lives on plantations. This resulted in many blacks essentially becoming serfs for their former masters. Segregation and Jim Crow laws only increased after the civil war due to racism, and despite freed black men legally being able to vote, they rarely could because of new racist restrictions. The south wasn’t alone in enacting racist legislation though, as New York has been called the capital of Jim Crow. Northerners may have been against slavery, but that doesn’t mean they cared what came next. Templars were primarily behind the south and secession, while assassins backed the north and abolitionists. Abraham Lincoln’s election is what ultimately set off the secession despite not even being an abolitionist. He, despite being against slavery, agreed that it was sanctioned by the US constitution under the 10th amendment. He cared more about keeping the union together, and still, the south seceded. Lincoln couldn’t let that stand and put northern troops in Fort Sumter, squarely in southern territory. He loaded the fort with arms and rations enough to last a long siege. The newly forming Confederacy of the United States saw this as a threat and fired upon the fort. Just like with the Mexican American War, Lincoln could now claim that not only did he want to keep the Union whole, but the south fired first. Lincoln then (illegally) declared Martial Law in Maryland in order to make sure the capital (Washington DC) wasn’t surrounded by enemies.
Despite the Assassins backing the north, we know from the movie that Assassins also supported the south. Perhaps this was similar to how General Lee was a general for the confederacy because of his family ties despite being against slavery? Perhaps Assassins and templars in the South agreed about very real potential issues with civil rights in the wake of slavery’s abolition and felt the solution could be worked out more diplomatically. We also know Templars controlled major parts of the North. William “Boss” Tweed was the boss of Tammany Hall and played a major part in the Democratic Party’s organization and the corruption in New York City. He was also a Templar master who worked with Cudgel Cormac (the grandson of Shay), to orchestrate the New York City Draft Riots in 1863. An assassin, Varius, worked for the Union and delivered a PoE to General Ulysses S Grant. John Wilkes Booth, a templar affiliate, assassinated Abraham Lincoln and then was killed by assassins 12 days later. Lincoln’s successor, Andrew Johnson, would go on to ratify the 13th through 15th amendments. His presidency was also about when the gilded age began, a period of 30 years marred by mass corruption and monopoly overreach during intense industrialization. Personally, I don’t think Ubisoft should attempt this setting. The rampant racism, the debate over what was a state right, the rise of organizations like the KKK, the bloody battles, and intense politics all still heavily impact the united states. Some men and women today can still say that their grandparents were freed from slavery between 1863-1865. The racism and corruption that poured forth in the aftermath can still be felt by many within the United States, even if such institutions have been since criminalized. The Civil War can be a very sensitive topic to people all across the United States, and it should be handled sensitively. I think there can be some very nuanced lore about the assassins and templars' roles during the war and why they chose certain sides. But ultimately I do not trust Ubisoft to handle this setting well. Unity nor Syndicate maturely handled themes of extremism or marxism well, and Origins and Odyssey have just blatantly ignored a lot of historical sexism and slavery. Freedom Cry was about freeing slaves and yet the slave ship you board shows a handful of men all chained separately and sitting up rather than the barbaric and cruel reality of the transatlantic slave trade that intended to spread disease and filth to break the body and mind of the slaves. Ignoring Injustices does not respect them or what millions of people went through.

Cowboys, Outlaws, and Indians in the West
The United States is incredibly beautiful, and the current games in this series have barely scratched the surface. Luckily, the westward expansion and wars America waged against the Native Americans are not only full of potential for fantastic (and tragic) stories but also can showcase a lot of America’s landscapes.
Founded in 1850 by Allan Pinkerton in 1850 the Pinkerton Detective Agency was a private security force that rose to prominence during and after the civil war. They’re well known for investigating and causing the collapse of several unions, investigating murders, serving as bodyguards for Abraham Lincoln, and infiltrating the Molly Maguires (a secret Irish organization in Pennsylvania). They famously were hired to hunt down Jesse James, the Reno Gang, and Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch. Outlaws were common in the south around Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Some like Jesse James and Black Bart were from farther North. Outlaws would generally prey on stagecoaches, trains, and banks, easy targets for quick money. Local sheriffs would then form posses to track down and bring the outlaws to justice. In cases of more notorious outlaws, detective agencies like the Pinkertons may be involved. Recently, however, the Pinkerton Agency has sued Rockstar for their portrayal in Red Dead Redemption 2; so it may not be possible to use them and we may see another Syndicate situation with Ubisoft making up fake gangs and agencies. Some towns and settlements began to pop up that supported outlaws. And these old west towns weren’t just down south in Texas and Arizona but stretched all the way north to the Dakotas, most famously including Deadwood where Wild Bill Hickock and Calamity Jane died. Some other famous towns include Tombstone Arizona and Cody Wyoming. Arizona was home to a number of towns like Phoenix, Tucson, and Flagstaff which was close to the Grand Canyon. Las Vegas existed as a small settlement in what is now Nevada, only a little to the west of the Grand Canyon, but wasn’t founded officially until 1905. California is home to Death Valley and part of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts while also holding massive mountains and rolling hills covered in redwoods. To the east were cities like Albuquerque and John Cross ranch (now Truth or Consequences) in New Mexico, Amarillo, El Paso, Austin, Houston, and Dallas in Texas. North of Arizona is Utah, home of the Mormons and Salt Lake City, containing Arches National Park. Right next door is the rocky mountains and Denver that was founded during the gold rush. Wyoming contains Grand Teton, Devil’s Tower, and Yellowstone. Montana and the Dakotas are filled with forests and stunning hills and landmarks like the Badlands. Kansas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Iowa are largely flat open plains, home of large cattle ranches and cowboys, and easy targets for the outlaws while Louisiana is just a flat swamp. East of the Mississippi are still some plains until you reach the Appalachians which border the east Coast. The only place I’d say we should go that’s east of the Mississippi is Detroit, which was called the Paris of the West and home to the Pinkertons.
Despite the fun lawlessness found commonly throughout the frontier as explored by Red Dead Redemption, America also had a much darker side. The westward expansion that exploded into the west following the Mexican-American War and the Gold Rush meant violently pushing Native Americans out of their land into reservations. This led to dozens of wars and battles in a series called the Indian Wars. I don’t have enough space to go into details about the wars, but between 1850 and 1900 there were well over 50 wars just west of the Mississippi between Native American tribes and the United States military. This is even ignoring the trail of tears in the southeast. Some of the more famous wars are the Sioux Wars and the bulk of these lasted from 1854-1890. They included some of the most famous American Generals and Native American leaders including George Cook, George Custer, Little Crow, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull. During the Great Sioux War Lieutenant Colonel George Custer and over 300 of his men were killed at the Battle of Little Bighorn. Years later in 1890, one of the most famous incidents occurred where Kicking Bull and Sitting Bull led to their deaths. The natives entered into Ghost Dance War, and during it, the US Army entered the native camp at Wounded Knee and after hearing a gunshot, massacred 350 native men, women, and children. Those are just 2 famous events, the map linked above under Indian Wars shows the locations of dozens more battles and forts. Once again, this setting would need a lot of care and respect to do it right and is something I’d be very concerned about Ubisoft doing well.
submitted by nstav13 to assassinscreed [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 13:12 michaeldave25 Weekly Discussions Post: September 4th -September 10th 2020

Weekly Discussions Post: September 4th -September 10th 2020

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Cyber Republic Facebook GroupWeekly Discussions Post: May 29th -June 4th 2020
All price discussion, market talk, memes, other cryptos exchanges in the daily/weekly discussion post only please.
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submitted by michaeldave25 to Elastos [link] [comments]


2020.09.03 01:12 TheManIsNonStop [Expansion] New Gulf Security Initiatives

June 2028
[M] For this post, assume it’s public knowledge that there’s new security measures being taken, but the governments of the region aren’t just publishing articles going “hahaha we’re spying on everyone!” [/M]
The Arab Gulf States have long prided themselves on their stability, using it as a major selling point to attract foreign investment and tourism into their countries in a region that is not usually known for its “stable governments” or “lack of armed militant activity.” But this stability is the sort of thing that has to be actively maintained.
The threats to domestic stability in the region are many. The wealth of the Arab Gulf States is built on the backs of millions of migrant laborers, working in environments with questionable safety standards, nonexistent labor protections, and low wages. In some countries, like the UAE, these expatriates make up more than 90 percent of the country’s population (though not all of them fit the bill of “poor migrant laborers”--some are wealthy Westerners). In others, Shi’a Islamists threaten the rule of the Sunni monarchies. In all of them, there lurks the constant threat of Wahhabi extremism or, worse, republican activists.
Bahrain and Saudi Arabia serve as a chilling example of what can happen if the state’s iron grip slips for even a second. Therefore, the Arab Gulf States have resolved to cooperate to improve their respective repressive forces, installing far-reaching domestic surveillance networks to track and identify potential dissidents, allowing them to be neutralized before they can become a greater threat. The best defense, after all, is a good offense.
Oman
Oman is already a leader in biometric identification. After rolling out its first mandatory biometric ID card with the assistance of Thales Group in 2006 (making in the first in the region to do so), Oman set about the task of linking its various biometric-enabled systems, which led them to hire Safran Identity and Security to manage the rollout of an Automatic Biometric Identification System (ABIS) in 2017.
Since then, Oman has maintained its leadership in the sector. Its mandatory carry national ID card is linked to biometric data like iris scans, DNA data, fingerprints, and facial scans (though only the latter two are necessary for all Omanis, with the latter two common only among Omani government employees or people working in sensitive sectors).
As part of the new GCC security initiative, Oman will seek to build on this solid foundation by expanding its eGovernance features to increase usage of the ID cards, as well as increase accessibility of government services for rural populations (Oman has by far the largest rural population of the Arab Gulf States, and often has difficulty adequately providing services to this population, owing to it being so big). Working with Thales Group and the other GCC member states, Oman seeks to make a fully functional eID by 2031. This eID will originally supplement the physical ID card (that is to say, both are fully valid) with the goal of fully phasing out physical IDs by 2035.
[S] While other leaders in eGovernance have made a very big deal about wanting to prevent a “1984”-style scenario where the government can use the data and the eID to surveil its citizens, we kind of actually want to do that. The goal is that by mandating eID usage for just about every facet of life, from buying a cell phone plan, to buying or renting property, to starting a business, to opening a bank account, to getting a visa, to getting licenses, etc., we will be better able to keep tabs on citizens and residents to identify problematic trends before they can get any worse than that. The other Arab Gulf States are looking to copy Oman’s example here, with the UAE adopting a similar time frame. [/S]
The United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates has been a regional leader in domestic video surveillance since the late 2010s, partnering with American tech giant Cisco (which has numerous operations within the country) to install state-of-the-art video surveillance throughout Abu Dhabi. Meanwhile, Abu Dhabi-based cybersecurity firm DarkMatter has been expanding its “Pegasus” big data application to pool hours of surveillance video to track anyone within the emirate of Dubai, later developing into the “Oyoon” (Arabic for “Eyes”) AI mass surveillance system.
Expanding on these developments, the UAE is looking to use its experience in the field to help implement similar programs in the other Arab Gulf States. These systems will be capable of utilizing big data and artificial intelligence to track people in real time by their gait, face, license plate, clothing, etc. Special attention will be paid to developing the ability to identify people wearing burqas (which, in the UAE, usually only cover the forehead and lips, and can often be heavily personalized as a fashion statement).
The program will also be expanded from Dubai and Abu Dhabi to the other emirates, with the goal of having coverage of having full coverage of the country’s major population centers and roadways by 2031. The system, both in its current and future forms, is envisioned to play a major role in responding to the protests that have started as a result of the proliferation of “deepfakes” of Emirati officials, identifying protestors and other dissidents for detention or further surveillance.
Qatar
With a population density of about 5,000 persons per km2 in 2018, Doha is the major population center of Qatar, accounting for over 85 percent of the country’s population. It stands to reason, then, that any dissent in the country’s migrant worker population or its clerics will start there, rather than in the small, disparate rural communities of the country.
Correspondingly, most of Qatar’s new security infrastructure will start there as well. Inspired by growing unrest in the other Arab Gulf States (caused in no small part by Chinese meddling) and China’s thinly veiled threats of reprisal (following Qatar’s eviction of the Chinese and Iranian bases in the country), Qatar has elected to install a new host of AI-enabled CCTV surveillance cameras throughout Doha and its environs. Partnering with Cisco, BAE Systems, and DarkMatter, Qatar has set the goal of having a fully-networked video surveillance system in Doha by Q3 2031. This surveillance system will allow the Qatari government to track individuals through a variety of personal characteristics, though, like in the UAE, particular attention will be paid to identification through features other than faces due to the use of the burqa among some women.
Qatar is also hoping to coordinate this domestic surveillance system with the Ehteraz (“Precaution”) app that was rolled out in 2020 as part of its coronavirus response. The app, which was made mandatory during COVID-19 (a decision which was never rolled back), can enable live GPS tracking on all phones it is installed onto. Qatar intends to link this GPS tracking to its domestic surveillance network to improve its efficacy.
Bahrain
Out of all of the Arab Gulf States, Bahrain is certainly the one most in need of a reformed mass surveillance infrastructure. Since tensions erupted in the country following the bombing of the Dammam Hawza in 2022 (something that, at this point, felt like a lifetime ago, even though it was just six short years), the monarchy has been stuck battling a domestic uprising that has ranged from “protests in the street” to “rebels holding territory and firing artillery at the royal palace to kill the King.” Fortunately, with the main fighting wing of the rebel forces destroyed, Bahrain can finally look towards rebuilding the country.
And the first step in doing that, of course, is making sure its domestic surveillance systems are good enough that this can never happen again.
With generous financing assistance from the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain has set about the task of installing a series of AI-enabled CCTV cameras throughout the country, using mass surveillance technology from Cisco, BAE Systems, and DarkMatter. Based on the Emirati Oyoon system, this will engage the Bahraini government to track its residents throughout the country. Moreover, the system will be tailored to track weapons ranging from assault rifles to ATGMs to anti-ship missiles to rockets to artillery, with the goal being to alert authorities to these weapons in the event that someone brandishes them, starts to set them up, or just smuggles them poorly. Ideally, this will help prevent someone from setting up a random artillery piece and shelling the King of the small island again. We hope. The system will also make use of Bahrain’s old coronavirus contact tracing app, BeAware Bahrain, which also allows optional GPS tracking of people’s phones, much like the Qatari Ehteraz app.
In addition to monitoring public areas and roadways (including all of the bridges leading between, onto, or off of the islands of Bahrain), the Bahraini Oyoon network is set up to provide constant surveillance of the 130km coastline of Bahrain Island and the 50km coastline of Muharraq Island. These cameras will be set up with proprietary technology designed by a joint venture by Cisco and DarkMatter, which will allow the system to identify and catalog vessels ranging from small pleasurecraft to rubber dinghies to massive oil tankers. This should make it much more difficult for Chinese or Iraninan assets to smuggle weapons and materiel into the country in the future--something which they have loved to do throughout this process.
As a final note, Bahrain has banned the wearing of the burqa (that is, the covering of the face) in public areas until the state of emergency in the country is lifted. This is not expected to be too much of an issue, as burqa usage in the country is already relatively low, and Ja’fari jurisprudence does not require the covering of the face.
Kuwait
Following leaks from a London-based fake account in 2020 claiming there was a mass surveillance system in Kuwait, Kuwait’s Interior Ministry claimed that there was no mass surveillance system in the country, and that the government had only made modest attempts to track individual persons.
Whether this was true or not, Kuwait is certainly developing a mass surveillance system now, following the instability in two of its southern neighbors and a resurgent Islamic State to its north. Using a combination of services from Palantir, BAE Systems, and DarkMatter, Kuwait has begun to set up a mass surveillance CCTV system within Kuwait City, which holds over 95 percent of the country’s residents. This, when combined with new and existing eID programs and online surveillance measures, will enable the country to track its citizens and identify potential dissidents before they have a chance to organize their groups or radicalize others.
Though Kuwait has a large Shi’a population (somewhere around 30 to 35 percent), this mass surveillance program will not target Shi’a individuals for additional surveillance. Kuwait’s Shi’a minority is perhaps the best integrated in the region, holding numerous government postings, elected offices, and other positions of power throughout the country. Therefore, it makes no sense to single them out for additional surveillance, despite the ongoing Shi’a insurgency in not-so-distant Bahrain. Kuwaiti thinking is that they aren’t any more repressed than anyone else in the country, and so it stands to reason they shouldn’t be any more likely to revolt.
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